Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Restoration of the Irish Culture Individuals of Irish average offer a pride in their national legacy maybe not at all like some other culture today. Numerous Irish homes are embellished with clovers, banners, and other Gaelic images even today. This excitement for Irish culture has not generally been near. Truth be told, this wellspring of pride can be followed back to one social restoration development in Ireland during the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. During this time, the individuals of Ireland framed the Gaelic League to bring together their nation, and to give themselves a national personality of where they originated from. Because of the abuse of the Catholic Church, the Great Potato Famine, and numerous types of oppression from the British, Ireland required a memorable approach their rich social history. Numerous components go into causing a nation to change into a country. Eoin MacNeill, the main leader of the Gaelic League, put stock in this full heartedly. He accepted that it took significantly more then just political power to bind together a nation into a country (Hachey and Hernon Jr. what's more, McCaffrey 140). MacNeill realized that with the end goal for Ireland to bring together, they were going to need to have a rich social history. His answer for this absence of culture was the Gaelic League. MacNeill asked the individuals of Ireland to be glad for their language, yet their specialty, writing, sports, and move. Very quickly the individuals of Ireland took to this new feeling of social patriotism. The Irish started to accept that their language was not only an approach to impart, yet a method of social qualities and a lifestyle (Hachey and Hernon Jr. what's more, McCaffrey 140). Individuals from the urban white collar class, who recently remained unaware of the Gaelic hist ory, started joining the alliance in monstrous measures of numbers. Before long, many... ...nal legacy. Albeit many contend that no other Irish social developments prevailing during this timespan, the Gaelic League maybe did what's necessary for every one of them. Today Irish are glad for what their identity was, and what they have become. Works Cited ChÃ¢teau, Gregory. Innovation and the Celtic Revival. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. Hachey, Thamas E., Joseph M. Hernon Jr., and Lawrence J. McCaffrey. The Irish Experience. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1989. Hepburn, A.C.. Ã¢â¬Å"Language, Religion and National Identity in Ireland since 1880.Ã¢â¬ Perspectives on European Politics and Society 02.2 (2001) <http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9846113&db=aph> Academic Search Premier Mill operator, David W. Ã¢â¬Å"Irish Catholicism and the Great Famine.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Social History 09.1 (Fall 1975) <http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=5498310&db=aph> Academic Search Premier.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Language and culture - Essay Example It is critical to note be that as it may, that even with a comprehension of the language, on the off chance that one doesn't comprehend the amusingness involved in the language, at that point one will be passing up understanding an extraordinary piece of the local culture of a people. The vast majority of this silliness is regularly reflected in the composed work, the artistic manifestations of the authors of the nation, where the cleverness is blended in with the introduction of the way of life and life of the individuals. That is the reason I have been brought into the universe of writing in my undergrad examines. It turned out to be a serious fascinating accomplishment for me to make an interpretation of English to Arabic and the other way around. I found that I was effectively moved by the Arabic sonnets and just Ã¢â¬Å"interestedÃ¢â¬ in the English sonnets, which I didn't discover as solid or convincing as their Arabic partners. My educator revealed to me this was on the grounds that the solid suit of the Arabic country was the exceptionally expressive language that the individuals utilized. All things considered, it had created after some time to successfully utilize words that would impact and propel individuals to have an enthusiasm for studying the Arabic lifestyle and the way of life of its
Tuesday, August 11, 2020
How to Use Influencer Marketing to Drive Sales Hereâs a shocker â" 70% of all millennial buyers are influenced to buy a product instead of using their own free thoughts.Soâ¦ what exactly is Influencer Marketing? And how efficient is it in driving your sales up the roof?Quite a lot if we follow the current trend of shoppers.Businesses earn an average of $6.50 for every $1 spent on influencer marketing. If you arenât utilizing influencer marketing, youâre missing out on huge profits.Donât fret, at Cleverism weâll demonstrate exactly the importance of using Influencer Marketing to boost your sales campaign.WHAT IS INFLUENCER MARKETING? WHAT MAKES IT THE NEXT BIG MARKETING TACTIC?Back when you were a kid when your favorite celebrity endorsed a new product on TV, you were magically drawn towards the product.Now be honest and ask yourself â"How likely were you to buy this product if it was endorsed by someone you didnât like? How likely were you to buy it from your favorite celebrity?The answer is obvious â" we are all influenced by people around us whether they are non-interactable celebrities or our family and friends.We recommend products in our homes, in the gyms, in the workspace, or during a barbeque party â" âHey, try out this delicious teriyaki steak sauce to pair with your steak.âWhile all of this is predominantly done to assist our family and friends in making wiser choices, today, there is a serious wave of influencer marketing utilized in digital sales.Understanding the Scope of Influencer MarketingInfluencer marketing is all around us â" we see people endorsing products on Instagram and Facebook every day.There are numerous YouTube channels where people review products and breakdown the pros and cons to provide valuable insight into the product you wish to buy.These social media influencers attract viewers and entertain them with humor or brighten their day through quirky videos describing the products they endorse. Highly engaged viewers became consumers of their favorite influ encers.Why?Because they form a bond with the influencer.Why Influencer Marketing is a High ROI for Businesses?A billboard set up with a product endorsement attracts anyone who strolls by the location.However, an influencer attracts their viewers to their product endorsement via digital mediums like YouTube and Podcasts. Hence, the targeted audience is extremely high when compared to standard advertising and costs much lower too.Followers of the influencer are happy to stay and watch the entire video. A billboard or an advertisement simply doesnât attract an audience in the same interesting way.Letâs assume youâre a brand that deals with gaming peripherals. It makes sense to reach out to a gaming influencer, right? The gaming influencer could be someone who reviews games or the latest gaming gadgets. Assuming this gaming influencer has 2 million followers on YouTube. Having your product as an endorsement at the end of their video allows the influencer to endorse your product wi th his viewers. And most of the audience just so happens to be? â" Well, gamers of course! Now thatâs a smart way to target your products to the right audience utilizing influencers.Youâre probably left wondering why viewers find an influencer interesting?Thatâs a simple one to answer.Influencers are real people. Individuals in an advertisement are hired actors with scripts.A key aspect that creates an interesting bond between influencers and their followers is âSimplicityâ. Influencers have a heart-to-heart conversation to explain the product in detail and provide in-depth knowledge about the product that an advertising campaign simply fails.People love honesty and influencers are all about being natural and to the point. Here are 4 examples of successful Influencer marketing campaigns that have driven a high ROI for their products.1. PewDiePie Chances are you probably came across this quirky name while browsing around the internet that belongs to Swedish YouTuber â" Fe lix Arvid.PewDiePiew has a whopping 101 million subscriber base on his YouTube account. With a combined total of over 140 million subscribers across all social media formats, heâs undoubtedly the top social media influencer that earns over $12 million every year.Yes! A millionaire. Thatâs how big influencer marketing is to sales marketing.Much of his videos revolve around video games and other popular culture content. PewDiePiew endorses colossal brands such as LG, Volvo, and was even said to be recruited by Disney until the deal fell through due to a controversy.If top brands have adopted to utilizing Influencer Marketing as their top choice for gaining customers, it demonstrates a working business tactic that is replacing the age-old âPost an Adâ approach.2. Bigelow TeaThe name Bigelow is quite a household name with specially brewed teas that would capture the soul of anyone lucky enough to catch a whiff.But did you know that Bigelow increased its sales by 18.5% through in fluencer marketing alone?With the assistance of blogger Ashley Thurman, Bigelow began to create an influencer campaign to directly reach out to their consumers by connecting to them via Ashleyâs lifestyle blogs. Ashley already had a good viewership on her Instagram and personal blog. Many of her audience were millennials.Bigelow wanted to strike a chord with the youngsters, so Ashley began to demonstrate various recipes for creating tea-based drinks on her blog and Instagram. Interested people reached out to her endorsement link and ended up on Bigelowâs website.In this way, Bigelow grew its sales by reaching out to other lifestyle bloggers to directly reach out to the young and millennial viewers.3. Mercedes BenzThe luxurious car manufacturer has utilized several micro and celebrity influencers to strike a chord with their prestigious customers.One such influencer campaign that was unique was when Mercedes got a hold of Loki, whoâs known in the social media world as a wolfdog that goes on adventures with his fellow humans.Yes! You heard right â" a pet dog drove the sales of Mercedes Benz up the roof.The VR campaign utilized Loki to embark on a chilling journey through the snowy cliffs of Colorado with his owner Kelly Lund.The campaign was heavily praised and became viral due to the bond shared by Lund and Loki while driving through the snow peaks in the cozy atmosphere of a Mercedes vehicle.The campaign proved the durability of the automobiles made by Mercedes that were capable of traversing over rough terrain through the snow-clad mountains. It also gave the viewers a sense of adventure that they could share with the wolfdog and owner on their epic journey.4. Dude PerfectWhat happens when you mix a gang of five friends in love with basketball doing trick shots on a lazy Sunday afternoon with a camcorder? You get a viral video shared by millions of people enjoying the tricks demonstrated by these talented basketball players.Skip a few years into the fu ture and the five players are professional influencers with their own TV show. They have their own merchandise store as well as various mobile apps to draw their viewership to their endorsements.The friends have over 46 million YouTube subscribers and 9 million Instagram followers to their name. Visiting their social media pages demonstrates the various products they endorse and why sports brands prefer to use them as their sales campaign.Do you still doubt the magnitude of influencer marketing with the examples above?Now that youâve understood why influencer campaigns are so successful, itâs time to start your own campaign.Allow us at Cleverism to demonstrate how to get it done in a few simple ways.TOP INFLUENCER MARKETING STRATEGIES THAT ARE GUARANTEED TO DRIVE SALESJust because a marketing strategy works, doesnât mean itâs a good thing to enter without a plan.Influencer marketing like other successful marketing strategies requires careful forethought before venturing into the unknown.Leave the rest to us to show you the exact science in picking the right influencer strategy for your brand. 1. Research Your InfluencersAlways choose an influencer that understands your brand and products.What we mean is choose an influencer that loves your products beforehand. To do this, perform research on all the videos or material that the influencer has previously reviewed or talked about.Grab your big yellow notepad and create a pro and con list. List down all the positives of the influencer on one side and the negatives on the other.Hereâs a sample pro/con list to review an influencer.Pros+ Understands my niche + In-depth review provided + Clear vocal clarity + Relatable + Creative MarketingCons Expensive to hire Creates only 3 videos every month (requirement: 5)The following example shows that the Influencer understands the product that you require and does a full review of your product. He or she also has a positive attitude and has an extremely mindset to entertain its audience. All great points and perfect to launch your product.But wait!The 2 big cons demonstrate that their pricing structure is quite expensive and out of your budget. They also donât seem to do more than 3 videos every month. This means youâll either cough up the dough or negotiate to reach a common ground.Remember, once youâve broken down the information, itâs easier to take a call if the influencer fits your requirements or not.Letâs assume you sell makeup essentials. Reaching out and collaborating with a makeup artist that reviews products for years and has a long list of followers is ideal to kickstart your publicity campaign. However, itâs ill-advised to reach out to fashion-based influencers as âFashionâ is a general term and not a niche. Your product endorsement could be all over the place.2. Long-term Commitment AlwaysAre you someone that takes a trial of a product before switching over to the next brand?Well, an influencer marketing strategy should always remain long-term or itâs never worth the effort.Hereâs why.The audience doesnât relate immediately to a new product that the influencer speaks aboutTakes time with repeated endorsements for viewers to relate with the productLong-term commitments are efficient for both â" the influencer and the brand ownerThe audience is likely to trust your product if the influencer is in collaboration for a long periodBuilds and strengthens the relationship of your product with the influencerThe long-term relationship allows the influencer to gain knowledge at marketing your product through experimentationA new product is like a blossoming romance to the influencer. There is bound to be product shyness and distance in the early days.While they perform their best to endorse your product through hot marketing trends, it takes time to connect the product with their audience.Partnering up for a long-term removes the awkwardness and the stress of coming up with a winning formula. T he influencer gets into the grove in a natural way and ends up connecting with your product in a natural manner.Long-term commitments convert into affiliate links and coupon codes personalized for the influencer to share with their audience. Something that wonât work with a short-term contract.3. Work a Unique Strategy for Your Product With Your InfluencerYes! You do have a say in how the influencer markets your product but remember the reason you are approaching the influencer in the first place. For their expertise!If you think you have a phenomenal idea to market the product, put it across and develop the concept while working with the influencer. However, If the influencer has a plan for your product, hear them out!Remember, they are expert marketers, they havenât attained a high follower count if they didnât know what they were doing. Itâs best to trust your influencerâs strategy over your own in the event of clashing opinions.If the influencer comes off rude or negat ive, itâs best to terminate the contract before proceeding further. Your productâs success is directly proportional to the healthy relationship that you possess with your influencer.The influencer will look forward to coming up with interesting concepts if they are interested in your product. Creativity and unique marketing are something that an influencer must come up with.An excellent example comes in the form of GymShark, a fitness apparel-based brand. Noel Mack remarks âInstagram as a huge part of our success story.â, GymShark invites their influencers along with their followers to their store for an interactive session of meet and greet.The session is usually followed by selfies and fitness advice. This level of interaction caused the fans and the influencers to bond even closer and in turn, drive the sales up the roof for GymShark. According to MarketingWeek, the brand doubled their earnings in a single year with these strategies.A marketing strategy doesnât require a complex plan but to achieve success it usually works best when working together with your influencer and both are on board with the execution. 4. Clearly Map Out Your Objectives and AudienceA general audience for your product wonât cut it. Thatâs like selling meat products to a vegan.It rubs people the wrong way and marketing to a general audience is extremely intrusive and unprofessional.Even if your brand deals with common household stuff like brooms and pans, itâs a good idea to market it to a target audience that is likely to make a purchase.Targeting everyone may seem like the way to go but remember â" maximizing your sales with the right audience bumps your profits.Thatâs why influencer marketing is perfect for putting the spotlight on your brand to grab the eyeballs of your niche audience. But even an influencer is helpless if you donât have objectives on the kind of marketing required.Ask yourself the following questions.Is my product targeting a luxurious range of individuals or am I most interested in giving the budget folks a good deal?Will I include discounts and coupons?Does my product come with a positive message? If yes, should the influencer include it in their presentation?Who is most likely to buy my product? â" single mothers, young professionals, fresh graduates, retired folks, children, etc. Are my competitors using influencer marketing as well? If yes, do I copy their best practices or simply go with a brand-new concept?Is my aim to maximize sales or to generate publicity or a balance of both?Am I tracking my current ROI for all the campaigns I have launched?Are my influencers closely related to my product?Write the answers to these questions down on a piece of paper.The answers to these questions provide you with the biggest solution to your marketing puzzle â" Perspective!Once you understand your perspective and draw conclusions, the search for your influencer narrows down. Hiring the right influencer can make or break yo ur brand.5. Donât Chase After Influencers with a Large FollowingBefore you say another word! Hear us out.Youâre probably thinking why you shouldnât go for the cream of the crop in terms of hiring an influencer.While on paper, gunning for the most popular influencer seems to be the best choice, you havenât fully considered the following negative aspects.A large following doesnât necessarily mean the influencer is doing a good job in marketing a product.Going by large follower numbers is a good way for you to fall into a scam. Many fraudulent influencers buy their followers through various nefarious sources.Even if a popular influencer is a ticket to the top, ask yourself â" How much do you think their fee is? Can you afford it? And if you could, is it worth it?The biggest influencers usually sponsor more brands and hence, their focus is diverted and most definitely not loyal to your brand.The big bad influencers may not be as easy receiving to your input and the breach in communication wonât ring a delicate tone.Another aspect to consider, if an influencer is popular and targeting a specific niche, chances are the niche is already tapped out of its potential by other well-known competitors in your field.The rule of the thumb is, leave the popular influencers for the large brands. Until your brand has matured into an organization, itâs best to stick with less popular influencers who have demonstrated their ability to market products.However, if you already have a large brand and are on the search for an influencer marketer, itâs best to match the other strategies in this article and choose a famous influencer.CONCLUSIONYou donât want your brand to be out in the cold while the rest of the world are utilizing influencer marketing to drive their sales through the roof.Collaborating with an influencer is an effective way to get honest publicity and a loyal audience.When was the last time you bought a product that an influencer recommended? What wa s it? Weâd love to read about it in the comments below.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Objective This specific report addresses the pros and cons of how much government intervention in the marketplace is necessary and appropriate. This report will cover four authors, Cunningham, Green, Friedman and Pertschuk. The authors have written extensively on consumerism and the protection thereof. This authorÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to break down some of the theories, which authors seem akin in their beliefs and which authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ views are bipolar opposites. Green states there be only should be two types of government regulations 1) economic regulations and 2) health and safety regulations. He states the only important pieces of consumer legislation to emerge from Congress in the past three years were the Ã¢â¬Å"Consumer Protection SafetyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Friedman views the consumer as strong and is totally interested in efficiency. He does note however the FDA had done a good job of keeping us from harmful medication. The CunninghamÃ¢â¬â¢s objective of their resear ch was to determine how many individuals in various sectors of society know about the consumer protection laws and their rights as consumers. These were included, but not limited to false advertising, false retail advertising, credit regulations, credit cards, labeling, truth in lending and deceptive retail practices. These authors view the consumer relatively weak due to a lack of knowledge. They also feel the low incomes are no match for the sophisticated marketer. There these authors are interested in equity. The most important implication derives from the lack of information demonstrated by all income segments of the consumer sample. This situation suggests that what is needed is not more and tougher laws, but rather more information made available to ore individuals concerning their rights as consumers. The present research has demonstrated that one other variable is important: with the exception of a few areas of the law, both consumers and attorneys know very little abo ut their rights as consumers. This was particularly true in areas such as door-door selling, false or deceptive advertising, false or deceptive retail practices. More and better information concerning consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights must be provided to individuals of allShow MoreRelated Government Intervention in the Free Market Essay1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages It is not only unnecessary for the government to intervene to maintain a free market, it is extremely wrong. Intervention by any outside party in corporate matters is inappropriate and basically contradicts the meaning of a free market. There are some positive effects government intervention could produce. These pros are, in fact, few, and questionable, at that. Take for instance, the situation with Microsoft. The government is sticking its nose in where it doesnt belong. Lets try and get passedRead MoreFree Market Or Government Intervention1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMuhammad Zharfan Bin Azhari Human Systems Paper 2 April 16, 2015 Free Market or Government Intervention In the 21st century, human and technologies are inseparable. In past decades, there has been an astonishing amount of development in modern worldÃ¢â¬â¢s technology. Nanotechnology is one of them. This technology is based on nano-scale and it can be used in many different areas because of its small sizes. (Metchis). However, there is a huge amount of uncertainties on the hazards of nanomaterialRead MoreGovernment Intervention On Kazakhstan Oil Industry Essay1449 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStudent Name : Tinglin Zhang Subject : Assignment : Essay Topic : Government intervention in Kazakhstan Oil Industry The world concerned problem today the energy problem. Among other reasons of its country is growing thirst for oil and gas made thus a matter of strategic energy security. Oil is the stratagem industry of the development of economy and society. With the development phase of KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s oil resources is speeding, the world big powers seek the benefits here, Kazakhstan becomesRead MoreGovernment Intervention On Kazakhstan Oil Industry Essay1535 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStudent Name : Tinglin Zhang Subject : AFFIN102A Principle of economics and economic theory in practice Assignment : Essay Topic : Government intervention in Kazakhstan Oil Industry The world concerned problem today is the energy problem. Among other reasons of its country is growing thirst for oil and gas made thus a matter of strategic energy security. Oil is the stratagem industry in the development of economy and society. As the KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s oil industry is speeding developing, becoming oneRead MoreCapitalism And Its Impact On The Middle Ages954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesway to the middle ages where it was used as a practice of merchant capitalism. Since then it has been practiced in famous societies such as the Soviet Union. Capitalism is being used less and less to date. Like any economic society, there are pros and cons. Capitalist societies are huge proponents to economic growth. It offers things such as incentives, which allow for economic expansion. This is completely different to that of other societies such as communism, where there is essentially no economicRead More Preventing Juvenile Delinquency Essay1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrights than a n adult has. The same justice system cannot be used for youths. The other stakeholders are the parents. The parents have the primary responsibility for ensuring that their wards do not commit crimes. The other stakeholders are the government state, Fed, and local, which have the dual responsibility of protecting the community as well as rehabilitating the juvenile. The other stakeholders are the community. It is because of the demands made by the community that stronger action isRead MoreJohn Johnson s American Idealism And Realpolitik Critique885 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespolitical battles in foreign countries, he brings forth the idea that the American government plays a vital role when it comes to mediating and facilitating conflict. Their importance can often be overshadowed by some opinions that the government, specifically the army, has over stepped its boundaries by intruding on countries and excessively becoming involved in hostility. Johnson notes that without American intervention, there would be cause for a considerable diminish in aid and possibly a rise inRead MoreControversy Has Become A Staple Part Of Modern Society.960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprivate owned (N.p., Ã¢â¬Å"The Pros and ConsÃ¢â¬ ). Furthermore, state-owned institutions had over 795,000-staffed beds in contrast to 118, 910-staffed beds for the private contingent (N.p., Ã¢â¬Å"The Pros and ConsÃ¢â¬ ). There were 33.6 million admissions for public hospital, while 1.8 million admissions for private facilities annually (N.p., Ã¢â¬Å"The Pros and ConsÃ¢â¬ ). The differences highlighted a growing concern regarding the disparity in how medical services are offered, with the government having to carry the burdenRead MoreAnalysis of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Essay1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesglobal proportions. Unfortunately, this tragedy could have been prevented. Lack of adequate safety efforts, enforcement, and regulations all played a major role in this truly catastrophic event. However, Prince William SoundÃ¢â¬â¢s remote location made government and industry relief efforts extremely difficult. The Alaskan community and the United States heavily criticized Exxon for their slow response to one of the largest environmental disasters of the century. The failed clean up left Exxon with severalRead MoreRemoving Barriers For Mental Health Services For Veterans826 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdischarge to receive Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) benefits. Critique of Policy Options To reduce the barriers for Veterans to receive appropriate mental health services the federal government can: 1. The United States Congress could remove discharge status as a prerequisite to mental health service eligibility. Pros: There has been 22,000 combat veterans that have received less than honorable discharges since 2009, for minor offenses like alcohol use or lateness. Research shows that these infractions
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Will immigration benefit communities? Immigration is a sensitive subject in many countries, especially in the USA presently. First, when an immigrant becomes successful this can keep those positions away from natural born citizens. This can anger people who see immigration as a problem. Second, when people are allowed to immigrate, most natural born citizens donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that it actually benefits them. Marshall Fitz in April 16, 2013 of The New York Times reports that Ã¢â¬Å"an average wage increase after legalization of around 15 percentÃ¢â¬ which means that the natural born citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s fear is irrational. Yet, the added increase in the economy has been reported as Ã¢â¬Å"immigration benefits mainly the immigrantsÃ¢â¬ (Vaughan 2014). I feel these worries are exaggerated. For instance, most immigrants and native-born citizens do not compete for the same job. Most likely they are working two different parts of the same job because each has their own unique set of skill s that benefit a project (Kugler, Oakford 2013). This is debatable. Steven Camarota states in the Center for Immigration Studies that there is a direct drain on natural born citizens when immigration happens but that any well-educated immigrant is actually a boost to the economy. Dealing with the issue of immigrations is tricky and will require deep planning. In my opinion, immigration laws should be fair and allow well prepared immigrants to get their citizenship because this will help the USAÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Because of this manyShow MoreRelatedImmigration And Moral Issues : Gun Control And Immigration1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGovernment, are gun control and immigration. In the U.S. our two political are arguing two completely different viewpoints, that can be compared to the moral ideas of Emanuel Kant and Jeremey Bentham. BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s approach, also know as the utilitarian approach, would agree with the Democratic Party that their should be gun control due to the massive a mount of pain afflicted due to guns. He would also agree with the Democratic Party when it comes to immigration laws, because immigration can lead to happinessRead MoreBenefits Of Immigration Reform During The United States Essay1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBenefits of Immigration Reform Today, the need for immigration reform questions many economic, political and moral realities in our country. In particular, the current immigration reform as a major issue in the Latino community. Each area will be examined with an emphasis on how each is beneficial to the economy, as well as touching on the differences between the key opinions around immigration reform. Latinos make up a large portion of the people impacted by the outcome reform bill. The MigrationRead MoreImmigration : The Land Of Opportunity1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmerica does not guarantee success, but these immigrants were willing to put their lives on the line in order to accomplish a Ã¢â¬Å"rags to richesÃ¢â¬ success story. On the contrary, the recent spike in immigration has become a major debate for everyone. CriticsÃ¢â¬â¢ arguing against immigration say that immigration leads to overcrowding, drug trafficking, and puts American culture at risk. Simply, immigrants play a leading factor in society politically, economically, and socially. But focusing on the economicRead MoreThe Issue Of Illegal Immigration1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNo issue in any immigration policy kindles more dispute than the issue of illegal immigration. Unfortunately, some people confuse legal and illegal immigration. Legal immigrants are here legally. They have the proper, legal documents that allow them to live and work in the U.S. without complications. Illegal immigrants are defined as anyone who was born in a country other than the U.S. to parents who are not official U.S. citizens; they enter the U.S. without legal documents to prove their legalRead MoreThe Cost of Illegal Imigration Essays1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescountry which have made it a struggle to keep thriving as the great nation we are. The struggle I speak of is not immigration but illegal immigration. Illegal immigrants have caused a struggle politically, in the government and have affected you even in your own schools and work. We must rectify the immigration system to help our predicament because the effects of illegal immigration may surprise you. One of the largest disadvantages of allowing illegal immigrants in our country is the cost. TheyRead MoreThe Center For Human Rights And Constitutional Law1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschallenges began when the Immigration Act of 1882 was passed, which gave authority to officials to deny access to the United States to anyone who was a criminal or who was uneducated (Immigration Act). This made it very hard for people coming to America to become citizens of the United States and even harder for them to become Ã¢â¬Å"active citizens.Ã¢â¬ Active citizens are defined as people who participate in their government fully and are not limited to what they can do legally in their community. Many people inRead MoreMulticulturalism Should Not Be Accepted1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAustralia. In discussing to what extent should cultural differences be accepted in a multicultural society, many agree that multiculturalism should be accepted if there is acceptance, tolerance of diversity and the new migrants learn to language of the majority and bring economic benefits to their new country. On other hand, it is argued that multiculturalism should not be accepted because of the negative influence that it can bring if there is no immigration control, acceptance of diversity as wellRead MoreThe Benefits Of Immigrants During The United States946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Benefits of Immigrants Ever since 2001, when the tragedy of September 11th happened, many citizens in the U.S. have a fear of allowing immigrants into the United States. Some citizens judge that immigration is an impending threat to national security, and that the U.S. should close the borders up for good. The U.S. should not consider that because everything negative that occurs in the U.S. is not due to immigrants. The government can stop illegal immigration right now, but would it not affectRead MoreEconomics And Immigration : The Economics Of U.s. Immigration Policy964 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEconomics and Immigration Immigration is a topic on everyone s minds these days. With presidential candidates vying for votes in debates and political campaigns, immigration has been talked about quite a bit. But what is truly known about immigration? Since it is such a divisive issue, it is hard to know what is true and what isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Unfortunately, the information most readily available to us comes in the form of opinionated articles and biased speeches by presidential candidates. Because the informationRead MoreImmigration And The United States967 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe opinion of many people today, immigration is what has made America. People who immigrate to a new country ace a number of challenging situations and problems in the new community where they live. The problems can be economic, societal and or cultural. There would be no America if not for immigration is what has made America because most of the people in this country are immigrants and from different parts in the world. Countries such as China, Germany, Japan and many others have contributed
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Abstract The broad objective of this research is to identify the root causes of attrition and retention in BPOs, analyzing the level of employee motivation, satisfaction and involvement, generate a model for maximizing sustenance of employees in the organization and come up with concrete recommendations, which will eventually be valuable to the organizations to retain their employees for a long term. 1. Objective It is clear from the review of BPO research that solutions are required to some specific problems of practical importance in the field of escalating attrition and retention in BPOs. We will write a custom essay sample on Attrition in Bpo or any similar topic only for you Order Now The broad objective f this paper is to identify the root causes of attrition and retention in BPOs, analyzing the level of employee motivation, satisfaction and involvement, generate a model for maximizing sustenance of employees in the organization and come up with concrete recommendations, which will eventually be valuable to the organizations to retain their employees for a long term. The specific objectives of this paper are: Ã · To identify and rank the factors of attrition in BPOs based on accumulative literature review and secondary data. Ã · To develop a regression model for escalating the stay of employees in BPOs nd give recommendations for the same. Ã · To assess the existing level of employee motivation and validate the model by studying the impact of recommendations on a small patch. 2. Introduction The last decade saw an upheaval in the growth and development of the Indian economy, which was accompanied by the revolution in the technological front and a radical chan ge in the way businesses were done. Instead of being the jack-ofall- trades, the smart organizations have now redefined the way of working and now aim at being the master of their core business. Outsourcing the non-core processes in order to concentrate on the ore ones is how the companies prefer to work now. BPO has become the obvious strategic choice of the phenomenal lifestyles seem to flash the mind in a jiffy. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s just the start. One reads it again, contemplates over it, dives into the unveiled afflictions, and gives it a second thought and companies looking at the visible profits of cost reduction while improving the quality of service, increasing shareholder value etc. With the whirlpool of opportunities the Indian Business Process Outsourcing sector seems to be on a happy ride. It has emerged rapidly, and its exports have grown from $565 million in 2000 to about $7. 3 illion in 2005. With the boat steaming ahead in the global markets, India has already become the m ost privileged destination. Hence such an eternal inventory of opportunities simply showcases a phenomenon, which is no less than the renaissance for our Indian markets. Attrition in BPOs has terrible effects on the organization. The high attrition costs increases the costs to the organization considerably. They have to combat the amount of disruption due to unplanned exits. The more the people leave an organization, the more it is a drain on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources like recruitment expenses, training and orientation resources and the time. The high attrition rate also affects the productivity of the organization. Therefore, it is extremely important to curb attrition not only for an individual firm but also for the industry as a whole. Many researchers have worked enormously on the IT BPO sector, citing its challenges, issues, and ATTRITION AND RETENTION OF EMPLOYEES IN BPO SECTOR Ankita Srivastava ankita_mba08@yahoomail. com SKS Group of Institution,Mathura Yogesh Tiwari tiwarimtr@gmail. com SKS Group of Institution,Mathura Hradesh Kumar hradesh. pachauri@gmail. com SKS Group of Institution,Mathura Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3056 ISSN:2229-6093 opportunities in and around employee performance, employee satisfaction, employee turnover etc. 3. Literature Review Grossman and HelpmanÃ¢â¬â¢s (2005: 135) statement, Ã¢â¬Å"We live in an age of outsourcing,Ã¢â¬ clearly designates that outsourcing has now become an acknowledged, accepted and established business strategy. One of the most familiar forms of outsourcing is business process outsourcing BPO, i. e. , transferring the operational ownership of one or more of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s business processes to an external supplier that, in turn, administers the rocesses according to some predefined metrics (Ghosh and Scott, 2005; Stone, 2004). BPO or Business Process Outsourcing thus refers to the rearrangement of entire business functions to some other service providers, primarily in low cost locations. The service provider may be either selfowned or a third party. This relocation o r transferring of business processes to an external provider is essentially to accomplish increased shareholder value. Some of the general services provided by the BPOs are Receivables and Payables, Inventory Management, Order Processing, Cash flow Analysis, Reconciliation, Data Entry, Payroll Processing, QuickBooks Accounting, Financial Statement Preparation and Accounting Services. Some of the web based services include live online sales and order entry, E-commerce transaction support, Live online enquiry handling, Web Design/Development. Reduced international trade barriers and improved telecommunication and IT capability over the past decade has led to a situation where organizations across the world are increasingly interlinked with each other. This has resulted in intense global competition, challenging business managers across the world to find ways to reduce the cost of conducting business and accessing lobal resources in meeting the need of global markets. In such a context, the reorganization of business models to leverage benefits of outsourcing and focus on core competencies has become a key strategy pursued by large corporations across the world. BPO service-providers are expected to provide a wide spectrum of benefits to their customers, ranging from having g reater expertise in the outsourced processes, lower costs achieved through economies of scale, scalability and the ability to absorb cyclicality of loads. Ã · Demand-Supply Equations According to market analysis firm Gartner, the global outsourcing market in 2000 was pproximately $119 bn and will touch $234 bn by the end of 2005. The market is expected to grow to about $310 bn by the end of 2008. Contribution from the North American continent stands at about 59% of the total market, with Europe contributing about 27% and Asia-Pac region (including Japan) contributing the remaining portion of the market. In terms of vertical contribution, the financial services industry contributes approximately 17% of the total market size, followed by the Telecom sector (16%), Consumer Goods and Services (15%), Manufacturing (9%) and the rest by the Information Technology sector. Global BPO Market by Industry Figure: 1 The BPO market can be broadly broken down into three areas of functional operations: i. Business administration (falling under GA expense costs) ii. Supply chain management (COGS), and iii. Sales, marketing and customer care (Selling and marketing costs) India has emerged as one of the bright stars in the global Business Process Outsourcing market and has maintained its global competitiveness by offering the best combination of cost, quality and scalability. The growth rates of the Indian BPO-ITES industry have been 59%, 45. 3% and 44. 4% in years 2002-03, 03-04 and 04- 05 with revenues of over $3. billion in FY 2003- 04 and expected to touch $5. 7 bn in FY 2004-05. Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3057 ISSN:2229-6093 Ã · BPO in India Currently the sector employs approximately 2,45,100 people and another 94,500 jobs are expected to be added in the current financial year. There are ov er 400 ITES-BPO companies operating in the Indian market, including captive units (of both MNCs and Indian companies) and third-party services providers. In terms of markets, the US continues to be the main consumer of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s ITES-BPO ervices (with a 66% share of the market), followed by Western Europe (including the UK), which accounted for 20% of export revenues. In terms of functional service offerings, Customer Care and Support services contributed approximately 34% of the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues with the other leading service lines including Finance (with a contribution of 22%), Administration (13%) and Content Development (19%). The global financial services vertical remained the largest user of Indian ITESBPO services, followed by telecom, healthcare and airline segments. Captive units continued to dominate the ITESBPO industry, accounting for ver 65 percent of the value of the work off shored to India. 4. Research Methodology The methodology deployed for this surv ey consisted of primary research, with insights being captured through questionnaires and face -to- face discussions with senior management of participant organizations. Inputs from potential customers to this industry have also been collated, with respect to their key concerns while considering outsourcing to India. The analysis was further supplemented by PwC knowledge-bases and published data to validate trends and best practices, emerging from primary sources. Our analysis and findings are ased on consensus findings from the survey and are supported by quantitative and qualitative inputs from the respondents. The data presented in this report is based on information received from the respondents and has been collated to represent an industry trend. The general intent of this descriptive study was threefold. Therefore a systematic and organized methodology was obtained for the research study. A survey design was used to obtain the required information. The population for this stu dy comprised of employees working in various BPOs in the National Capital Region. A sample size of 250 was chosen for this study. Simple andom sampling technique was used to gather data from the respondents, because of which respondents diverged from every age group, gender, organization, marital status etc. but were restricted only to low and middle level employees, where the attrition is highest. The questionnaire was intricately designed to tap the demographic variables including age, education, gender, marital status, and tenure of the respondents. It also gathered information about the factors responsible for attrition, the factors that can be employed to retain the employees in a BPO, their overall level of satisfaction, motivation, involvement and life nterest and work compatibility. Main data collection began in the month of July 2011. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. 0 was religiously used for the statistical analyses. Ã · Primary Data Analysi s A questionnaire was intricately designed to tap the factors responsible for attrition, the factors that are expected to be present in a specific job for retention. The instrument was divided into 4 parts. The first part gathered information about the personal profile of the respondents which included their age, gender, education, marital status, and tenure. Part II consisted of questions about their easons for change or probable change in their jobs. Part III aimed at knowing what according to the respondents is important for their sustenance in an organization. And last of all, Part IV was about their overall perception of the work which included their level of satisfaction, level of motivation, level of involvement and level of life interest and work compatibility. Ã · Secondary Data Analysis In order to gain a deeper understanding about the phenomenon of high attrition, and identification of the factors behind it, a lot of literature on BPO, particularly what got published dur ing 2004 and 2005 was studied in detail. Major causal factors for high attrition in Indian BPO industry identified in this study were based on qualitative research using secondary data. These were compared with causal factors for attrition identified through personal interview with a number of BPO employees in the Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3058 ISSN:2229-6093 NCR. There was a close similarity between the two results, authenticating the qualitative research on causal agents for attrition identified in this study. The study ranked low perceived value and onotonous work as number one factor attrition. Rank two was shared by high salary expectation and unusual working hours. Next factor was disillusioned employees; rank four was shared by stress and burnout, pressure to perform on metrics, and lack of motivation. Finally rank five was jointly shared by lack of security and social interaction. Causal Agents / Factors Score (on 1) (R ank) Higher Salary Expectation 0. 7 (Rank-II) Lack of Security 0. 3 (Rank-V) Lack of Social Interaction 0. 3 (Rank-V) Monotonous Work 0. 8 (Rank-I) Unusual Working Hours 0. 7 (Rank-II) Pressure to perform on Metrics 0. 5 (Rank-IV) Low Perceived Value 0. (Rank-I) Disillusioned Employees 0. 6 (Rank-III) Stress and Burnout 0. 5 (Rank-IV) Lack of Motivation 0. 5 (Rank-IV) Table 1: Summary of ranks from secondary study 5. Growth of BPO industry Ã · Company Owned Units Pioneered BPO in India Company owned units such as American Express, General Electric (GE), Citibank, and AOL etc. triggered the trend of outsourcing back office operations and call centre services to India. Since then several banks, insurance companies, airlines and manufacturing companies have set up back office service centers in India. Ã · Venture Funded New Companies Over the last few years, a number of xperienced professionals have set up start-up operations in India. Generally such start-ups have been funded by ven ture capital funds. Ã · Leading IT Services Companies enter BPO Given the magnitude of such opportunity, natural synergies with the software services business and the ability to leverage their high-end physical infrastructure and management bandwidth, most large IT services companies have ventured into ITES. Consolidation of the market with the smaller players merging with each other/ larger companies for economies of scale Ã · Domain / Industry Specialized BPOÃ¢â¬â¢s Niche players in industry verticals or specific usiness processes have setup BPO businesses. Many of these players have had vast experience in the domestic market and are now offering offshore BPO services Generalized large BPO players are now focusing on Ã¢â¬Å"verticalizingÃ¢â¬ their competencies and structures Industry Structure MNC subsidiar ies Internatio nal BPO Companie s Diversifi ed IT Compan ies GE Convergys Daksh Infosys (Progeon) British Airways Sitel Brigade Wipro (Spectrami nd) eServe, HSBC, Scope, AmEx eFunds Talisma Tech Mahindra Hewlett Packard Ã¢â¬â- Hero HCL Table: 2 Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3059 ISSN:2229-6093 Ã · Size and Growth of BPO in India Figure: 2 The growth in the BPO sector of India in 2004 was mainly due to the demands from the two segments Ã¢â¬â BFSI and telecommunications. There were low telecom costs for the leased lines and 400 companies were part of the BPO sector of India. The companies that were involved included third parties, Indian companies and MNC. Growth of BPO sector in India has been truly impressive in recent years, but things can get even better, according to market analysts. India stands out already as a market leader as far as BPOs are oncerned and so India also attracts huge foreign investments which are extremely essential since the Indian economy is expected to have an unprecedented growth in the years to come. Growth of BPO Sector in India during the first half of 2007 was showing a moderate trend of growth which is registered at 14%. Five years ago, the growth in this sector was quite low due to les s contracts but the situation is worse now. However, the growth of the BPO sector is expected to improve. The BPO and KPO sectors in India have been showing some positive signs with demands from western countries increasing manifold due to the vailability of cost-effective labour in India, which is highly skilled and also fluent in English. The BPOs in India are focused on increasing the growth through change in pricing techniques. Pricing in a BPO is supposed to be based on the value added to the business. So a remarkable change is in store as the BPOs in India work towards their full potential. Of course, the big boom in the BPO industry in 2003 had generated a lot of employment opportunities and continues even today. Nevertheless, Indian BPO sector is facing competition from countries like Philippines, Mexico, Malaysia, China, and Canada. The xpected growth of this sector in 2003 was 25%. Nations like the United States and Europe are showing great interest in increasing their inv estments in the Indian BPO sector. India has an edge over other countries as we consider the following: Ã · Tech savvy professionals Ã · Cost effectiveness Ã · Superior competency Ã · Business risk mitigation Ã · 24 hour service Ã · Economy of scale The trends in growth of the BPO sector in India are as follows: Ã · 2003 Ã¢â¬â USD 2. 8 billion Ã · 2004 Ã¢â¬â USD 3. 9 billion Ã · 2005 Ã¢â¬â USD 5. 7 billion According to studies conducted by NASSCOM and leading business Intelligence Company, McKinsey Co. he Indian IT/BPO segment is expected to employ over 1. 1 million Indians by the year 2008. Market research shows that in terms of job creation, the ITES-BPO industry is growing at over 50 percent. In the financial year 2003-2004, ITESBPO companies were the largest recruiters in the IT/ITES sector, adding a total of about 70,000 jobs. An estimated 70,000 new Jobs expected in 2005 in the field pf ITES. Plus there will be additional hiring to replace industry attrition that is around 25%. On the other hand BPO and outsourcing services would generate around 1, 25,000 new Jobs in 2005. McKinsey Co. predicts global market or IT-enabled services to be over $140 billion by 2008. In that the opportunity for India will be around $ 17 Billion. Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3060 ISSN:2229-6093 Figure: 3 Supplier-Side Assessment Ã · Domestic Indian BPO Industry has seen a spurt in the recent years growing at a 33 %CAGR. Ã · The Domestic Indian BPO industry grew from a USD 660 Million to a USD 1. 18 Billion industry. Ã · EBITA margins for domestic BPO stood at a double digit Percent figure Ã · Billing rates are less compared to offshore segment Ã¢â¬â Most Indian BPOs (especially all centers) are engaged throughout the night hours (for offshore clients), leaving the facility empty for the day. 1. This enabled them to be leveraged during the day for domestic markets in India Demand Side Assessment Ã · Financial, banking, and telecom companies are leading the domestic BPO wave: 1. BFSI sector companies Ã¢â¬â UKÃ¢â¬â¢s largest banking firm 2. Telecom majors- almost all major mobile landline telephony provider 6. Factors responsible for attrition and retention of employees in BPO Hackman Oldham (1976) proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular ob characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc). The basic hypothesis of this research that employee motivation, employee satisfaction, em ployee involvement, and life interest and work compatibility lead to rolonged sustenance is an extension of this model with minor modifications in it. It is proposed that the Job Characteristics model is modified by redefining job dimensions as growth prospects, accountability, sense of accomplishment, self-esteem, job security, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, by extending organizational outcomes as satisfied, motivated, involved and retained employees. Figure 1 is the modified Hackman and OldhamÃ¢â¬â¢s Job Characteristics model which has been taken as the base to study the research questions pertaining to this research. The new model is also designed to be of use as a management tool and must herefore be simple and flexible enough to be of use to the management of an organization. Typical management questions would involve the likely motivational impact of job redesign, such as increasing employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ level of control and responsibility over their work behav iour or introducing a scheme whereby employees participate in certain management decisions. The model should therefore allow managers to manipulate a host of job characteristics and investigate the likely effects upon the motivation, performance and sustenance of the workforce. This study aimed at exploring the dimensions of attrition and retention. Based on our ground work; initial survey and personal interviews held with the BPO employees, it was found that factors that contribute to attrition are quite different from the factors that contribute to retention. Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3061 ISSN:2229-6093 Figure:4 Modified version of Hackman and OldhamÃ¢â¬â¢s Job Characteristics Model Based on the Hackman and OldhamÃ¢â¬â¢s Job Characteristics Model and the modifications made to it, a clearer and more lucid pictorial framework of the model is given in Figure 5 and 6. Figure 5 learly illustrates the basic constructs of the attrition model: personal characteristics, negative job characteristics (job dimensions), and the final resultant as attrition. Figure 6 illustrates constructs of retention model i. e. personal characteristics, intrinsic job dimensions and the resulting level of satisfaction, motivation and involvement (work ou tcomes) and the final result i. e. retained employees (organizational outcomes). Figure: 5 Basic models for attrition Figure 5 clearly suggests the personal characteristics as age, education, gender, marital status and tenure along with the negative characteristics of a BPO job i. . monotonous nature of job, lack of motivation, poor mentoring, power and politics, dissatisfaction with colleagues, low career growth, lack of skill variety, irregular working hours, achievement not recognized etc. These two collectively result in the attrition of employees. The question is how much do these factors actually contribute to attrition. Similarly figure 6 describes the personal characteristics and core job dimensions which are intrinsic in nature and how do they contribute to retention of employees. Figure: 6 Basic model for retention of employee 7. Result and Analysis Ã · Regression Model for retention The dependent variable was sustenance in an organization, and the independent variables were personal characteristics viz. age, gender, education, marital status, and retention factors viz. motivation factors, extrinsic factors, involvement factors, and life interest and job compatibility factors. All these eight factors were put in the model as independent variables and willingness to continue in the organization was put as the dependent variable. Intrinsic motivation factors, employee involvement factors, age and education are the main determinants of retention. The value of multiple R is 0. 60 and the value of r square is 0. 6 in the equation. It states that 36% of the retention in a BPO is explained by these factors. An employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s sustenance in an organization can be rightfully explained by these factors. Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3062 ISSN:2229-6093 Equation: 1 Y= 1. 78 + 0. 47X 1 + 0. 15X 2 Ã¢â¬â 0. 13X 3 Ã¢â¬â 0. 11X 4 Where, Y = Stay in the organization X1 = Intrinsic Motivation Factors X2 = Involvement Factors X3 = Age X4 = Education After forming the regression model, value for each respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to stay in the organization was calculated. These predicted values were then compared to the actual values as given by the respondents. There was a strong correlation between the actual and predicted values. The correlation came out to be 0. 659** which was significant at 0. 01 level. Thus, on the basis of the regression model it can be concluded that intrinsic motivation factors; and involvement factors are quite instrumental in retaining the employees in an organization and at the same time, age and education negatively contribute to the sustenance of the employees in the organization. Employee involvement is a proven tool to motivate and retain mployees and according to the result here, it can be constructive in the Indian BPOs too. In the West, there has been ongoing interest in getting workers more involved in various processes, such as decision-making and information sharing. Employee participation adds to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ growth needs and sense of achievement through a healthier deployment of their dexterity and potent ial. Employee participation in planning and decision making and in articulating new policies also acts an important tool to improve employee motivation. Finding ways to intrinsically motivate employees to improve effectiveness and performance can have ong lasting impact on their sustenance too. Based on the two dimensions i. e. motivation and involvement which, according to the regression model, significantly contribute to the sustenance of an employee in the organization, employees can be broadly classified into four broad categories. There are people who are woefully inadequate in both dimensions i. e. neither are they involved in the work, nor are they motivated to perform. We may call such people as Ã¢â¬ËdetachedÃ¢â¬â¢ who leave the organization for no rhyme or reason, hence extremely difficult to be retained. Next comes the Ã¢â¬ËdisgruntledÃ¢â¬â¢ who get involved in the iven assignment but lack aspiring motivation. Such people are moderately to highly difficult to be re tained as they lack in the basic intrinsic motivation. The other two segments comprise of Ã¢â¬ËstrugglersÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËstarsÃ¢â¬â¢ who are at the higher end of the motivation continuum. The former may be relatively lower in their involvement as compared with the latter. Ã¢â¬ËStrugglersÃ¢â¬â¢ lack involvements but have a high degree of intrinsic motivation, because of which they struggle hard to work. It is moderately difficult to retain them. The ease and art lies in fulfilling their involvement needs by expanding their responsibilities, empowering them, aking them involved in decision making etc. Ã¢â¬ËStarsÃ¢â¬â¢ are highly motivated and highly involved in the work, and thus they are the easiest to be retained. Ã¢â¬ËDisgruntledÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËstrugglersÃ¢â¬â¢ are the focus segments, which a company would not want to lose. They need to be enhanced, protected, valued and retained by pulling away all the nonretentive forces and kicking the retentive forces in to high gear. DISGRUNTLED Highly involved but demotivated employees Moderately to highly difficult to retain STARS Highly involved and highly motivated employees Easy to retain DETACHED Uninvolved and demotivated employees Highly Difficult to retain STRUGGLERS Uninvolved but highly motivated employees Moderately difficult to retain LOW HIGH Table: 3 Intrinsic Motivations Involvement vis-a-vis Intrinsic Motivation: Effect on employee retention Ã · Model Validation For the final validation of the regression model, a small patch test was done on a sample of 50 employees in Intelnet Private Ltd. Few concrete recommendations were made to the process manager of this BPO and he was asked to stringently apply these recommendations. The employees chosen for this study were the ones who had said they would leave the organization if they were offered work with the same pay elsewhere. Data which was collected, after three months of implementation, was analyzed statistically. The response scores were put in the regression equation as derived from the fourth objective and the resultant willingness to stay in the organization was calculated. The comparison with their original scores clearly revealed that there was an escalation HIGH LOW Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3063 ISSN:2229-6093 in the scores. Also, the predicted scores and the actual scores of the willingness to continue in the organization was put under correlation. Finally, employees were classified under four broad categories based on their level of involvement and motivation viz. detached, disgruntled, strugglers and stars. 8. Conclusion The regression model for the retention of employees in a BPO explains two important factors i. e. intrinsic motivation factors and involvement factors. This result is robustly analogous with all the prevalent and established theories of motivation viz. HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, AlderferÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory, McClellendÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory. According to all these theories, the higher order needs revolve around self esteem, or selfactualization in one way or the other. According to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, the higher-level needs are selfesteem and self-actualization. Only when one need is satisfied, another higher-level need emerges and motivates the person to do something to satisfy it. A satisfied need is no longer a motivator. Only the next level of needs in the hierarchy will act as motivators. Once a level of needs has been satisfied they no longer act as motivators and the individual then directs attention towards the next level of needs in the hierarchy. Herzberg draws a parallel with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory but with a subtle difference. According to his theory, motivator factors are actors that are intrinsic to the job, such as the content of the work itself and the availability of opportunities for responsibility, advancement and recognition for achievement. The motivator factors, which Herzberg described as Ã¢â¬Å"complex factors leading to this sense of personal growth and selfactualizationÃ¢â¬ , would then be able to act on that employe e and increase job satisfaction and productivity. Thus, according to this theory, in order to motivate workers towards higher productivity, it is important to ensure that the motivators are utilized to arouse the instinct of the employees. HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s motivator and hygiene actors can be mapped onto MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs with the motivator factors corresponding to the higher order needs of ego and self-actualization. Next, according to AlderferÃ¢â¬â¢s ERG theory, growth needs involve the intrinsic desire for personal development and include the intrinsic element of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s esteem category as well as self-actualization needs. Finally according to McClellendÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, people with a high achievement need have a compelling drive to succeed. They strive for personal achievement rather than rewards and have a desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has een done before. They seek situations where they can attain personal responsibility f or finding solutions to problems, where they can receive rapid feedback on their performance so they can tell easily whether they are improving or not, and where they can set moderately challenging goals. 9. Recommendations Organizations should have a proactive retention strategy which helps in reducing employee turnover. Retention plan strategies should be different for different level of employees, because their roles are different; their needs are different; what motivates them are different and what makes hem leave are also different. Based on the study it has been seen that dimensions of satisfaction and motivate are significantly different for employees on the basis of age, gender, marital status and education. Then, the regression model revealed that intrinsic motivation and involvement factors, as well as age and education level contribute to the sustenance of employees in the organization. Thus based on the findings, it can be said if the employees are motivated and involve d in the work they can be retained. The ease of retention would depend on their degree of motivation and involvement. It is desirable to lan employee retention strategy by an organization, which should cover following aspects: Ã · Reciprocity is the key. Employees are investors in the company and expect a return on investment. The return can be in the form of recognition, empowerment and authority. Ã · Retention must be part of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA. Successful organizations have woven retention and engagement deeply into their structure. Ã · Loyalty is never given. Loyalty must be earned; even satisfied employees sometimes leave. Therefore, develop sense of loyalty among the employees. Ã · Organizations must be seen as employers of choice. One has to compete on ompensation and benefits, but win on culture, learning and development. Ã · Stars include more than just the top 10% Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â or 1%! Stars are people at any level who sustain in the organization and bri ng value to it. Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3064 ISSN:2229-6093 Ã · Each generation of employees has different reasons for staying. For the first time in modern history, there are varied generations working side-by-side in most companies of this industry. Generational differences continue to pose new challenges to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s employers. Thus, retaining them needs a generation-centric approach. Ã · Mentor widely and in both directions. Build learning relationships in all directions and hold all partners responsible for the success. Ã · Train intelligently. Provide on-going retention training in manageable bites Ã¢â¬â make it a continuous effort and find ways to size the retention plan to the specific demographics of the organization. Ã · Create a development culture. Ã¢â¬Å"Career development is the right thing for the organization (identifying and developing future leaders), the right thing for the employee (creating a development environment), and a key retention omponent. Ã¢â¬ Ã · Recognize managers who keep employees. Meaningful recognition remains a potent energizer for employees and managers alike. 10. References 1. Vohra, Kushal, Systems Approach to Retention of Critical Employees. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn. com/abstract=662442 2. Tapper, David. Ã¢â¬Å"Worldwide and U. S. IT Outsourcing Services 2004Ã¢â¬â2008 Forecast: A Potential Perfect Storm. Ã¢â¬ Market Analysis (April 2004): IDC, Document 31089 . 3. Witt, L. A. , Martha C. Andrews, and Dawn S. Carlson. Ã¢â¬Å"When Conscientiousness IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t Enough: Emotional Exhaustion and Performance among Call Center Customer Service Representatives. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Management 30 (February 2004): 149Ã¢â¬â60. 4. Walletwatch. Ã¢â¬Å"Call Centre Attrition Puts HR Managers to Test. Ã¢â¬ (April 2003). www. samachar. com/biz/fullstory. ht ml; (Accessed on May 8, 2010). 5. Rediff. com Ã¢â¬Å"What Indian BPO Industry Needs. Ã¢â¬ (2005a). us. rediff. com/money/200 5/apr/23bpo. htm; (Accessed on May 1, 2010). Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â. Ã¢â¬Å"1000 Jobs Offshored . 6. Ravichandaran, Ram. Ã¢â¬Å"BPO, ITES Sectors to Hot Up in 2005, Says NASSCOM Report. Ã¢â¬ Financial Express (March 9, 2005): 2 7. Ramchandran, Kumar and Sudhir Voleti. Ã¢â¬Å"Business Process Outsourcing (BPO): Emerging Scenario and Strategic Options for IT-enabled Services. Vikalpa 29 (JanuaryÃ¢â¬âMarch 2004): 49Ã¢â¬â62. 8. Prakash, S. and Chowdhury, R. (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Managing attrition in BPOÃ¢â¬ , In search of Excellence, Cool Avenues, http://www. coolavenues. com/know/hr/s_1 .php. Last accessed on: February 06, 2010. 9. Pande, Bhanu Ã¢â¬Å"Sun, Survey CanÃ¢â¬ â¢t Deter the Call of Duty. Ã¢â¬ Economic Times Online (July 29, 2005). (Accessed on May 8, 2010). 10. Neale, Helen. Ã¢â¬Å"Offshore BPO Delivery. Ã¢â¬ NelsonHall BPO and Outsourcing Subscription Service: Nelson-Hall, 2004 . Ankita Srivastava et al,Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl,Vol 2 (6), 3056-3065 IJCTA | NOV-DEC 2011 Available online@www. ijcta. com 3065 ISSN:2229-6093 How to cite Attrition in Bpo, Essay examples
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Question: Choose one piece of auto-biographical writing which relates to needing welfare services. Provide an analysis of the chosen piece of auto-biographical writing which draws on the learning in the module ( Social work, Service users, Anti-discriminatory practice Using Narratives) and discuss how the learning from the analysis could support anti-discriminatory practice? Answer: Welfare services are basically processes that deal with the well - being of the different individuals and the society. It offers financial help to the people to the economically and socially degraded people which are actually provided by the government. This will actually help to increase the happiness and prosperity in the lives of the people. In this study, a detailed analysis is done on the various aspects of welfare services (Abbott, 2003). The analysis is explained with the help of an autobiographical piece in evangelical Christianity relating to the role of women who are American and African slave (Arum, 2010). This autobiography dealt with the conversion of slave women, conversations between slave women and white women in the Southern society of evangelical Christianity. This society was hugely patriarchal and it affected the independence of women in the aspect of religious powers. The major role of the women was to nurture their children and also to encourage their religious involvement. There were different types of Evangelical churches like the Baptists, Methodists, and etc. Slaves do not belong to any specific institution. They literally faced numerous exploitation and humiliation from their masters (Leckie, Given Buschman, 2010). The disciplines of the church basically alert the responsibilities assigned to the slaves for their masters. The American Africa slaves faced torture in terms of their religion as well as in conversion (Magnusson, 2010). This had serious implications against the white culture with respect to political and social means. In the process of conversion, mother p lays an important role for their children. The family was the only peaceful place for a slave. In the family, a slave can lead his normal life but tremendous pressures still bounded on them. However the responsibilities of the white women were quite similar to the slave women. Their main focus was on improving the lives of their children and help in domestic chores. Slave women dealt with extreme difficulties to raise their children (BarkleyRosser, 2010). They married men on distant plantations and faced the threat of rape and other violations from the white slave owners and were sold to the traders from their families which ultimately resulted in the less effectiveness of nuclear families (Eriksen, 2010). However women faced many issues regarding gender discrimination. Another aspect which was significant was the both conversions and religious visions which was the vision of calling to preach and pray. A major difference exists in the narratives on the basis of gender, since only m en recalled being asked by God to preach. According to the evidences described in the narratives, a calling from God allowed only slave men to undertake the position of preacher. In many of the men's narratives their call to preach and their confidence in their ability to lead demonstrate that at that time men did not question the ability to serve in a more formal leadership role (Leckie, Given Buschman, 2010). Some men even often recalled that they had a lack of faith in their capabilities, but it was noted them God asked them to preach. A former slave expressed his self-doubt, stating that God not only instructed him once to preach: "I call you to preach the gospel," but also a second time: "Go in peace and fear not for a teacher and preacher shalt thou be and many shall hear thee and believe." The normal man heard two specific messages before he would go further in future. However, the slave knew that he had the right and the calling to become a preacher because God spoke to him. These important relationships of the family invoked women with the influence on setting up traditional family standards and it also provided stability in the family. One vital way that they demonstrated their family leadership was through religious instruction and guidance (Okitikpi Aymer, 2010). Slave women-mothers, aunts, and grandmothers-served as unofficial advisers and mentors providing security and moral expectations for slave children, as well as elevating women's status in the family realm. There are hardly any references in the narratives to the importance of fathers who provide religious guidance. This autobiography mainly focuses on Evangelical women including mothers and aunts. However, it also provides an insight into the religious leadership of men within the family. Through the practice of Evangelical religion or fonns of folk religion, women obtained an important place in their families, representing a moral authority in the slave community. For example: Frankie Goole expressed happiness about her belief in God and her positive memories of religion during slavery. A very real implication of the importance of influence of mothers on their children's religion is the number of references in the former slaves' narratives recalling their mothers' praying, singing, discussing religion or the submissive nature of their mother. This will directly reflect the impact of women's reli gious activities on their children. They also indirectly indicate that women gathered strength, introspection, and comfort from praying. Their own convictions led to a position of religious leadership within families, an ascent that directly challenged white assumptions of black inferiority. The more women secretly gathered to discuss religion, prayed during the worlung and taught their children how to worship. At the same point of time, this type of religious resistance to the slavery institution became an important means for women and thereby they gain respect and gave strength to their children. A former slave recalled the visuals of her mother praying for her child to convert in to Christianity (Albertson, 2010). These teachings encouraged women to generate moral and domestic authority. It also helps them to provide self esteem and values to their children. These teachings remained with the children even in the difficult situations and provided them the courage to survive in those difficult situations. Even though the churches were biracial, most of the churches divided the seats according to races, castes and the sermons that were offered to the African Americans. However, it was observed that many slaves have benefitted from this kind of worship. They belonged to the same religion as their master and mistress and religiously they were completely equal. In this biracial scenario, the role of the white women was vital. The white women negotiated with the slaves and allowed them to attend the local churches (Arum, 2010). This actually implied that religious preferences of both white and slave women were on a same level. Similar religious preferences do not imply similar cultural activities. Th eir relationship was very complicated. White women belonged to a highly dominated class. They did not have any economical and social problem like the slave women. So their scenario is completely different from them (SAUNDERS, 2010). Social work is carried out by the trained personnel in order to alleviate the social deprivation from the lives of the affected people. Social work is a very important in the contemporary society. The two major roles which are normally there in Social work are Support role and Control role. The first one is basically associated with the support which is to be given to the people who are mentally and socially degraded while the control role is associated with the protection of childs health and mental aspect. The social work contributes the life quality of the citizens, solidarity and the other relations in the society. Communities and individuals will constantly face social disadvantages and they will require help from the states and the government and to overcome this, there is a need of social work. Social Work is the profession that allows one to fight for individuals rights, protect the vulnerable and support those who are in need of support. It enables one to have a positive eff ect on others. It allows one, as a practitioner to work with a varied and differentiated group of people, to learn and experience a multifaceted life that is consistently dynamic and evolving. It allows one to try and tackle the various problematic issues, to help empower others to solve their own problems, to make a difference (hopefully for the better) the way the individual live. It teaches one continuously about all the different aspects of humanity and allows one to learn a lot about oneself. Social work allows one to work on different levels of society, to have a hand in changing it and to push forwards to a fairer, more equal and just society. Being a social worker could literally mean the difference between life and death for one person and that ultimately says it all and therefore makes it worth having, worth continually training and learning, worth making it a true profession and worth fighting for and continually developing it. Thats why social work is important in the li ves of the people facing obstacles and difficulties. Another important aspect which can be viewed with respect to social work is the role of Service Users (Lichtenberg, 2010). Service users are those people who use the social health care services potentially. They normally highlight the negativity of the mental and health policies. The main objectives of a service user are Providing proper information and advice. Their work is varied across families, individuals as well as different communities. Provide practical guidance and psychological counseling and support to the effected people. Provide funding to the backward people as well (Best, Minshew Strauss, 2010). They also deal with the social work approaches which ultimately lead to assessment. If these objectives are fulfilled then the people can lead a normal and independent life. The task of a service user is one of the most important aspects in a social work approach. In a social work practice, four stages are needed to be identified (MOREAU, 2010). They are Assessment Planning Intervention Review In the first stage, the problem should be assessed and analyzed whether it is an individual problem or problem of the society. Secondly to overcome the problem, a proper and appropriate strategy should be adopted. Thirdly, there should be a method of intervention like the state intervention to help the degraded people and lastly there should be a proper review to this assessment and critical review should be given so that if further any kind of social problem prevails, then these reviews will help to avoid the negative aspects of the social work. It also provides way to develop self esteem of the individuals and there is no unfair means to treat people differently (Flabbi, 2010). Anti Discriminatory Practices: By anti discriminatory practices, it is meant by the actions taken to prevent discrimination which happens in terms of race, color status. It actually promotes equality so that there is less discrimination. In this type of practices, the diversity of the people is dealt by the social workers and other professionals which ultimately results to develop a social awareness and also develop a relationship with the client (Lichtenberg, 2010). The workers who are comfortable to deal with their own identities have initiated effective responses to the others needs with different identities. The need of anti discriminatory practices arises when a low backward class is affected by the discrimination against them (Rapp, 2010). The objectives of the anti discriminatory policy are to provide polite, positive and encouraging responses to all the relevant inquiries. It also ensures balanced decision how the applicants can meet the needs of children and the people who are young. These practices will always make the affected people to deal with the difficulties. This will also ensure the victims not to lose their sight of importance of improving their livelihood. Providing equal opportunities do not mean treating every individual same. It will help to identify the uniqueness of the particular individual (Pennington, 2000). Basically, in multiculturism anti-discriminatory practices are rooted. These practices are employed by the social workers who help the degraded individuals to overcome the prejudice of the institutions and individuals. These types of practices are flexible and it involves the views of the individuals who are oppressed. These can also analyze the nature and impact of culture of different organizations and it includes multidimensional strategies which reflect the different concepts of networking, involvement of the user and participation. The practitioners should work out an understanding of all these ideas thereby lowering the discrimination and racial disparit ies among people. In this way it will help to develop ways to deal with these discriminatory and oppressive policies (Rapp, 2010). On the basis of this above autobiography, it can be inferred that the lower class of people i.e. the slaves are hugely affected and are discriminated against race, color and social status. The high classes dominated the lower class people. Presence of racial discrimination affected adversely the lives of the people. The black people were immensely tortured and had to face lots of issues in their regular life. There was even gender discrimination. Society being patriarchal, women were left behind in every aspect (Siddique, 2011). They face tremendous obstacles, sexual harassments and even brutal killings. The slave owners married slave women and exploited them in every way. They dont have their own independent life and had to do according to the order of their husband. Their opinions did not matter as well. They could not lead a peaceful life even in their own house (Kraal, Roosblad Wrench, 2010). However, the white women somehow had a better place in the society compared to the slav e women. Though they had same religious beliefs, but the cultural difference had made a distinction among them (Pierson Thomas, 2010). Here the service users can help to the degraded people through counseling and specific advice. In every situation, the slave women faced difficulties and there was no way for them to get out of this. In this scenario, the lower and the backward class of people needed support from the service users. Importance of social work also cannot be neglected. Here, the support role is played by the churches and control role is played by the slaves mother who has a desire for her child to convert into Christianity and lead a better life. Women are always sacrificing their happiness for the betterment of their family (Singh, 2010). Like here, slaves mother are praying anxiously for their children only for their enhancement. They cant even show their interest in any matter which they like (Rivera-Maestre, 2010). They were deprived of elementary education as well . So they dont have any idea about todays advanced generation where women play a significant role in the society and are still fighting to make their position stable in the society (Pagitt, 2010). There should also be a way to provide an analysis. So the anti discriminatory practices are required to be undertaken to make the lives of the people peaceful and hastlefree (Siddique, 2011). However this piece of autobiography can be compared with todays scenario as well. In todays scenario, both developed and developing countries faced severe social issues. Issues regarding women empowerment, racial discrimination still prevailed in many developed countries as well (Dovidio, Hewstone, Glick Esses, 2010). In every sphere of life, women face more challenges than the male counterparts. For example, molestation is faced by women everyday in majority of the countries. In a developed country like USA, statistics show that 9 out of 10 women have been molested and attempted rape. In Africa as well, this problem is quite prominent. There persists inequality in terms wages and salaries (Un.org, 2015). Women get less salary compared to the men. The average wages earned by women is $34,700 and by men is $42,800 (Bobbitt-Zeher, 2011). On a daily basis, women have to manage both household and professional work. The major issue that persisted in Africa was the racial discrimination. Today also, the white people are given more importance than the back people. In Libya, the black migrants were extensively humiliated and racial violence resulted in the death of the migrants (Un.org, 2015). There is still the presence of caste differentiation. In Africa, distinction among the high castes and low castes has unfavorable effects on the people of low caste. This reduces the growth in career, lowered the earnings, loss of self-esteem and confidence, depression anger etc (Siddique, 2011). In order to eradicate these social issues, certain policy implications should be adopted. Measures should taken by the government to improve the social and economic environment. Government policies should be implemented to remove inequality among men and women (Pennington, 2000). There should be a law on the equality of wages among and women so that women can earn at the same level men do. Gender discrimination should be reduced. Some policies should also be adopted in order to remove the disparities in caste system. There are differences in the religious beliefs as well. This should also not be discriminated and some policy or law should be implemented in this scenario. If these policy implementations are undertaken by the Government of both developed and developing countries, then there would be improvement in the lives of the normal people (Changer, Barreto Ellemers, 2010). The Government should itself take the responsibility to remove these problems. So these social issues shoul d be addressed and there should be positive solutions in the form of policy implementations and welfare services. Welfare services thus provide a very important place in the lives of the socially degraded human beings. It generates integrity in the society and help to maintain a well balanced state (Un.org, 2015). The need of welfare services is not only important in the lives of the slave but it is of utmost importance in the lives of the women in particular as they facing majority of the issues in their live (Pennington, 2000). 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