Tuesday, March 24, 2020

The Life Of Emily Dickens Essay Example For Students

The Life Of Emily Dickens Essay Emily Dickinson was raised in a traditional New England home in the mid 1800s. Her father along with the rest of the family had become Christians and she alone decided to rebel against that and reject the Church. She like many of her contemporaries had rejected the traditional views in life and adopted the new transcendental outlook. Massachusetts, the state where Emily was born and raised in, before the transcendental period was the epicenter of religious practice. Founded by the puritans, the feeling of the avenging had never left the people. After all of the Great Awakenings and religious revivals the people of New England began to question the old ways. What used to be the focal point of all lives was now under speculation and often doubted. People began to search for new meanings in life. People like Emerson and Thoreau believed that answers lie in the individual. Emerson set the tone for the era when he said, Whoso would be a man, must be a non-conformist. Emily Dickinson believed and practiced this philosophy. When she was young she was brought up by a stern and austere father. In her childhood she was shy and already different from the others. Like all the Dickinson children, male or female, Emily was sent for formal education in Amherst Academy. After attending Amherst Academy with conscientious thinkers such as Helen Hunt Jackson, and after reading many of Emersons essays, she began to develop into a free willed person. Many of her friends had converted to Christianity, her family was also putting enormous amount of pressure for her to convert. No longer the submissive youngster she would not bend her will on such issues as religion, literature and personal associations. She maintained a correspondence with Rev. Charles Wadsworth over a subeztial period of time. Even though she rejected the Church as a entity she never did reject or accept God. Wadsworth appealed to her because he had an incredibly powerful mind and deep emotions. When he left the East in 1861 Emily was scarred and expressed her deep sorrow in three successive poems in the following years. They were never romantically involved but their relationship was apparently so profound that Emilys feelings for him she sealed herself from the outside world. Her life became filled with gloom and despair until she met Judge Ot is P. Lord late in her life. Realizing that they were well into their lives they never were married. When Lord passed away Emilys health condition which has been hindered since childhood worsened. We will write a custom essay on The Life Of Emily Dickens specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In Emilys life the most important things to her were love, religion, individuality and nature. When discussing these themes she followed her lifestyle and broke away from traditional forms of writing and wrote with an intense energy and complexity never seen before and rarely seen today. She was a rarity not only because of her poetry but because she was one of the first female pioneers into the field of poetry. Emily often speaks of love in her poems, but she did it in such a way that would make people not want to fall in love. She writes of parting, separation and loss. This is supported by the experiences she felt with Wadsworth and Otis P. Lord. Not with a club the heart is broken,nor with a stone; A whip so small you could not see it,Ive knownThis seems to be an actual account of the emotions she experienced during her relationship with Otis Lord. Individuality played a pervasive role in her life as a result of her bout with separation. Emily did not conform to society. She did not believe it was societys place to dictate to her how she should lead her life. Her poems reflect this sense of rebellion and revolution against tradition. .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d , .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .postImageUrl , .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d , .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d:hover , .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d:visited , .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d:active { border:0!important; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d:active , .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub394ae809779242291a44e38b361626d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Reflective Response - "The Telltale Heart" Essay From all the jails the boys and girlsEcstatically leap,- Beloved, only afternoonThat prison doesnt keep. In this poem Emily shows her feelings towards formalized schooling. Being a product of reputable college one would think that she would be in favor of this. But as her beliefs in transcendentalism grew so did her belief in individuality. Emily also went against the Church which was an extreme rarity of the time. Similar to many other that shared her beliefs she too did not think that a set religion was the way for salvation. Some keep the Sabbath going to Church; I keep it staying at home, With a bobolike for a chorister, With an orchard for a dome. According to this poem Emily clearly states that nature is her source of guidance and she has little need for the Church as an institution. Like Thoreau, Emily believed that people need to underezd nature before they could begin to comprehend humanity because humanity was just a part of nature. Unlike many other she felt that nature was beautiful and must be understood. Has it feet like water-lilies?Has it feathers like a bird?Is it brought from famous countriesOf which I have never heard? (Will there really be a morning?)Further on in the poem she goes on to ask if the scholar or some wise man from the skies knows where to find morning. It can be inferred that morning, something so common place and taken for granted, cannot be grasped by even the greatest so called minds. Emily also saw the frightful part of nature, death was an extension of the natural order. Probably the most prominent theme in her writing is death. She took death in a relatively casual way when compared to the puritan beliefs that surrounded her life. Death to her is just the next logical step to life and compares it to a carriage ride, or many other common place happenings. Because I could not stop for Death-He kindly stopped for me-The Carriage held but just Ourselves-And Immortality. Life according to Emily is brief and the people living out their lives have little control. In this short lifeThat only lasts an hour,How much, how little,Is within out power!However non-religious she may appear and however insignificant she believes life to be she does however show some signs in accepting life after death. This world is not conclusion;A sequel ezds beyond,Invisible, as music,But positive as sound. To Emily the most important things in her life were religion, individuality, nature and death. She may not have believed in God but He did have a profound impact throughout her childhood. Emily and Emerson alike felt the most important thing was to maintain ones individuality as she did. She was fascinated by both nature and death and she attempted to explain both in her writings.

Friday, March 6, 2020

How to Research Loyalist Ancestors

How to Research Loyalist Ancestors Loyalists, sometimes referred to as Tories, Royalists, or Kings Men, were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the years leading up to and including the American Revolution (1775–1783). Historians estimate that as many as 500,000 people - fifteen to twenty percent of the population of the Colonies- opposed the revolution. Some of them were active in their opposition, actively speaking out against the rebels, serving with British units during the war, or supporting the King and his forces as couriers, spies, guides, suppliers, and guards. Others were more passive in their choice of position. Loyalists were present in large numbers in New York, a refuge for persecuted Loyalists from September 1776 until its evacuation in 1783. There were also large groups in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and in the southern colonies of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.1 Elsewhere they were a large minority of the population but least numerous in Massachusetts Virginia. Life as a Loyalist Because of their beliefs, Loyalists in the Thirteen Colonies were often treated as traitors. Active Loyalists may have been coerced into silence, stripped of their property, or even banished from the Colonies. In areas under Patriot control, Loyalists could not sell land, vote, or work in occupations such as doctor, lawyer, or schoolteacher. The outright hostility against the Loyalists both during and following the war ultimately resulted in the flight of about 70,000 Loyalists to British territories outside the colonies. Of these, approximately 46,000 went to Canada and Nova Scotia; 17,000 (primarily Southern Loyalists and their slaves) to the Bahamas and West Indies; and 7,000 to Britain. Among the Loyalists numbered not only colonists of British heritage, but also Scots, Germans, and Dutch, plus individuals of Iroquois ancestry and former African-American slaves. Begin with a Literature Survey If you have successfully traced your ancestry back to an individual living in America during the American Revolution, and clues seem to point to him being a possible Loyalist, then a survey of existing published source materials on Loyalists is a good place to begin. Many of these can actually be researched online through free sources that publish digitized version of historical books and journals. Use search terms such as loyalists or royalists and your area (state or country of interest) to explore available resources online in Google and in each of the historical books collections listed in 5 Free Sources for Historical Books Online. Examples of what you can find online include: Siebert, Wilbur H. The Loyalists of Pennsylvania. The Ohio State University Bulletin, 24 (April 1920). Digitized copy. Archive.org. http://archive.org/stream/pennsyloyalist00siebrich#page/n3/mode/2up : 2013.Lambert, Robert Stansbury. South Carolina Loyalists in the American Revolution, second edition. Digital book. Clemson: Clemson University Digital Press, 2010. clemson.edu/cedp/cudp/pubs/lambert/lambert.pdf : 2013. When searching specifically for historical publications, try various combinations of search terms such as United Empire Loyalists or loyalists pennsylvania or south carolina royalists. Terms such as Revolutionary War or American Revolution can turn up useful books as well. Periodicals are another excellent source of information on Loyalists. To find articles on this topic in historical or genealogical journals, conduct a search in PERSI, an index to over 2.25 million genealogy and local history articles appearing in publications of thousands of local, state, national and international societies and organizations. If you have access to a university or other large library, the JSTOR database is another good source for historical journal articles. Search for Your Ancestor in Loyalist Lists During and after the Revolution, various lists of known Loyalists were created which may name your ancestor. The United Empire Association of Canada has probably the largest list of known or suspected Loyalists. Called the Directory of Loyalists, the list includes about 7,000 names compiled from a variety of sources. Those marked as proven, are proven United Empire Loyalists; the rest are either unproven names found identified in at least one resource or those who have been proven NOT to be Loyalists. Most of the lists published during the war as proclamations, in newspapers, etc. have been located and published. Look for these online, in U.S. state archives, in Canadian provincial archives, and in archives and other repositories in other areas where Loyalists settled, such as Jamaica. Sources: 1. Robert Middlekauff, The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp 549–50.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Collective Bargaining at West University Assignment

Collective Bargaining at West University - Assignment Example In today’s world, management has become well-aware of efforts such as employee engagement that increases employee’s productivity, lowers production cost and improves the quality of final products and services. Likewise, labor unions are realizing that they can assist their members by developing co-operative relations with management rather than fighting with them. Even in the corporate world, U.S. labor laws are created to reduce mistrust and opposition between management and labor. For instance, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) was passed for encouraging collective bargaining and balancing the power of workers with that of the management; the legislation even assists in the elimination of the company’s practices of setting up unions with the purpose of discouraging outside unions to organize their employees. As a result of this law, companies were prohibited to provide support or allow the creation of labor organization. In this case of West University, the congregation of unionists is justified by labor law and they have the right of collective bargaining on matters related to their service terms. However, the labor law, in this case, does not bound employers in the effective expression of controversial issues with unionists; employers can choose to ignore unionists’ wants. Basically, the union is strong only for the rights that it can fight for and be crippling it on its instructions make certain that its relevance has no meaning. Hence, the labor law indirectly suppresses unionization. In every organization, determination of an individual who is providing service is considered either to be a contractor or an employee; it is largely dependent on that person’s involvement with service’s owner.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Fundacin Chile Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Fundacin Chile - Essay Example In 1997 Dr. Eduardo Bitran assumed the office as general director of Fundacin Chile. He faced the difficult task of administering the institution, which was constituted as a private non-profit institution with 50% state ownership. One of the most innovative mechanisms that the foundation used, unique in Chile and probably in Latin America, was to create new businesses as a main means to diffuse and transfer technology. Dr. Bitran played a major role in Chile's economic development. , Chile had managed to keep to its course and to maintain growth and stability amidst enormous turbulence, in a period of economic decline that had affected all of Latin America. Recognition of the importance of new knowledge as the base of future businesses was gaining importance and Venture capital funds became the focus. Local innovation clusters were formed around the wine and salmon industries, and specialized fruit production was beginning to reveal the benefits of biotechnology and sophisticated pro duction methods. Immediate challenge for Dr. Bitran was to identify the path and direction for Fundacin Chile. His main challenge would be administer the institution to generate social benefits, as required by the mission entrusted to it as a quasi-public entity, while at the same time acting as a private business to obtain the necessary resources that would permit it to grow and develop. Fundacin Chile's promoted innovation and technology transfer emphasizing agribusiness, forestry and marine resources. It followed several modalities like demonstration businesses, technology transfer groups, training and diffusion, and providing services such as consulting to quality control. Chile encouraged the participation from its associates and strategic allies both national and international; financing originating from the private sector was diminishing with time, while that obtained through state grants increased. Financing provided by sales of services to the public sector had not changed for several years. Fundacin Chile, besides creating innovative business and developing the programs mentioned, began to develop financial innovations for the national market. The institution sought, with these innovations, to more efficiently mobilize savings for investment in the sectors in which Fundacin worked. The foundation also created a venture capital fund for regional investments in medium-size growth businesses and new projects. Besides these venture capital funds, the foundation also fulfilled a seed financing role for innovative projects originating within the institution. Fundacin Chile was structured in four sectoral directorates: agro-industry, marine resources, secondary wood products, and forestry. The operational model was re-defined to distinguish and specify the concepts of technological centre, business units, companies and endowment management, establishing differences in objectives and in plans of management and interaction among the

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Non Cooperative Target Recognition Information Technology Essay

Non Cooperative Target Recognition Information Technology Essay One of the most important aspects of any combat situation is target identification or recognition. In aerial combat, the problem is compounded because of large ranges and similar looking fighter aircraft. Unless a threat is ascertained, counter offensive action cannot be initiated. The problem of target identification in the present air combat scenario has been further complicated due to the large range of the new generation Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missiles  [1]  . While in the yesteryears, procedural control and systems like Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) were in place, they did not guarantee positive identification, since they were not stand alone in nature  [2]  . Therefore there was need to develop a stand alone system capable of identifying airborne threats. 2. Thereafter Non Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) techniques were developed, which did not depend on any direct participation from the target for identification purposes. With the emergence of this technology, a big hope was created that this technique would be resolve all the identification issues. The NCTR technology started gaining momentum in the mid eighties and is yet to prove its capability, almost 25 years on  [3]  . Despite technological advances in computers, NCTR is yet to see the light of the day. Though many modern day Airborne Interception (AI) radars feature NCTR, it is still not being used as the primary means of target identification. NCTR at present is being used in conjunction with IFF and other procedural methods primarily due to its reduced reliability. 3. Incorporation of NCTR technology in the older AI radars may involve change of the radar itself. Considering this and the fact that NCTR technology has not fully matured, is NCTR really the most economically viable solution for airborne target identification at present? Or is there a better system available for this purpose? Methodology 4. Statement of Problem. Modern day air combat environment is dense with both friendly as well as hostile aircraft. Identification is a serious problem and this has been further compounded by significantly large ranges of new generation air to air missiles. Erstwhile methods of target identification like IFF have failed in many situations, leading to fratricides. Would employment Non Cooperative Target Recognition techniques alone resolve this issue? 5. Hypothesis. NCTR as a technology is very demanding on the computer hardware as well as software. So at present NCTR may not be the best solution for problems related to aircraft identification in a dense air combat environment. It is possible to get inputs from all available sensors like AI radars, AWACS, aerostats etc and integrate them to form an intelligent composite picture and identify friends from foes. However NCTR as a concept is still very lucrative. 6. Justification of Study. The requirement and importance of target identification is fairly obvious and history will bear testimony to the fact that most of the fratricides have been due to incorrect identification. Earlier systems have failed primarily because the onus of identification was with the target. Inability to prove himself for whatever reason, resulted in a friendly target being declared hostile. While NCTR as a concept seemed to be a good solution, the technological implementation of the concept has still not emerged fail proof. Also, integration of various other existing sensors in a networked environment to form an intelligent composite picture seems to be a more viable solution. 7. Scope. The scope of this paper is to examine as to whether NCTR is really the path ahead, as far as target identification goes. The paper will look into the complexities associated with database required for airborne target identification (3 dimensional space, multiple aircraft configurations etc.) and also the technical limitations associated with implementation of NCTR. The paper would also examine the feasibility of implementing other techniques of identification. The scope would be limited to logical analysis based on available information on the subject and would not involve any scientific experiment or mathematical computations. 8. Methods of data collection. NCTR as a subject has gained momentum only in the past few years and hence has very few publications giving basic insight. Most of the data has been collected on the internet including soft copies of the books and validated thesis by others. The sources are mentioned in the bibliography at the end of the paper. 9. Organisation of the Dissertation. It is proposed to study the subject in the following manner:- (a) Chapter I Introduction and Methodology. In this chapter the subject is introduced. This chapter also defines the statement of problem, the justification for the research and the methodology involved. (b) Chapter II Need for Airborne Target Identification systems. This chapter brings out the requirement and complexities involved in airborne target identification. (c) Chapter III History of NCTR. This chapter gives a brief insight into the history of NCTR (d) Chapter IV How exactly NCTR Works. To appreciate the complexity involved in the airborne identification process, it is important to understand how exactly NCTR functions. This chapter brings out the complexities involved in the working of NCTR. (e) Chapter V Various Types of NCTR Techniques. This chapter brings out the types of NCTR techniques available for use. Though the chapter is technical in nature, it is important to assimilate the various techniques in order to understand the complexity and short comings of the system. (f) Chapter VI Database Generation. The efficiency of entire process involved in NCTR depends on an accurate and exhaustive database. This chapter brings out the methods available and the limitations in generating adequate database. Again this chapter like the previous chapter is slightly technical in nature despite best efforts of keeping it as simple as possible. (g) Chapter VII Technical Limitations of the System. While so far the paper dealt with the software aspects, this chapter would bring out the technical limitations of the hardware required by the radar for functioning of NCTR. (h) Chapter VIII Alternatives to NCTR. This chapter looks at the alternatives to NCTR for target identification. (j) Chapter IX Conclusion. This chapter concludes the topic. CHAPTER II NEED FOR AIRBORNE TARGET IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the results of a hundred battles. SUN TZU Introduction 1. In any hostile situation it is important to identify the adversary. Without knowing who the enemy is, how can one fight? Same is true for aerial combat, only with added degree of difficulty. While in the earlier years, aircraft identification was mostly restricted to visual identification, with improvement in technology this was no longer possible. The increasing weapon ranges post World War II made it difficult to visually identify aircraft in air during combat. 2. And also, any given airspace may contain friendly, neutral as well as hostile aircraft. How can one fire at an aircraft without ascertaining its nature / intent. Therefore aircraft identification forms a vital part prior to weapon launch. Tragic Incidents. 3. History is full of tragic incident of misidentification in air. There are numerous examples of neutrals having been shot from the sky. There also many cases of fratricides even in the recent conflicts. Some of them have been enumerated below  [4]  :- (a) On 5 October 2001, a Russian Sibir Tu-154 Airliner flying from Israel to Russia was thought to have been shot down by a missile fired by Ukrainian troops in a military exercise. (b) In April 1994, 02 USAF F-15 aircraft under positive control, accidently shot down their own Army Black Hawk Helicopters in Northern Iraq  [5]  . Visual Identification of Aircraft 4. World War Era. In both the first and second world war, aircraft recognition did not pose any major problem. In this era, the kill solution was attained by use of guns and hence the weapon ranges were much closer as compared to the distances at which the targets were discernable. The aircraft were slow moving and it was possible to spot and identify the type of aircraft before commencing offensive action. The combat was largely within the so called Visual Bubble of the pilot/s. As can be seen from Fig 2.1, the aircraft can be visually recognized by identifying the distinct shape, colour and characteristic visual features of the aircraft. Due training was imparted for this. In fact, in United Kingdom, The Royal Observer Corps (ROC) was formed, which had civilian personnel specially trained for identifying aircraft  [6]  . Fig 2.1 : Aircraft of World War Ihttp://www.military-aircraft.org.uk/ww1-fighter-planes/nieuport-17.jpgRoyal Aircraft Factory SE5A World War One Aircraft 5. Post World War II. However post World War II, there was a rapid improvement in the fighters and weapon technology. With the advent of close combat air to air missiles and increase in weapon ranges, the hostile aircraft had to be identified by at least 2-3 km to initiate evasive action. Also the newer jets were similar looking in terms of shape and size. In the Fig 2.2, photos of F-15 and MiG-29 aircraft are placed side by side for comparison. While F-15 is an American fighter, MiG-29 is from erstwhile Russia. One can easily appreciate the similarity of features which may result in one being mistaken for the other. If this is the case at close ranges (20 30m), it would be reasonable to assume that visual identification would be almost impossible at ranges of 2 km and beyond. Fig 2.2 : Visual Comparison of F-15 and MiG-29 Fightershttp://www.atfx.org/photos/f15a.jpghttp://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircraft/fighter/mig29/mig29_12.jpg 6. Post World War II, there also has been a significant increase in the speed of fighters engaged in aerial combat. This fact together with earlier mentioned aspects makes visual identification a passà ©. The use of radars did give some respite to the aerial fighters. However the weapon solution was still based on visual identification. With the advent of BVRs, the need for alternate means of identification gained importance. Without this, the full capability of BVR cannot be exploited  [7]  . 7. To tackle this problem of target identification, some techniques like the IFF (Identify Friend or Foe) have been developed so far. IFF systems are based on challenge response system. The system consists of a transponder fitted on the aircraft which replies in the form of suitable codes to any other IFF system. If the codes match, the aircraft is declared friendly. However should the code be incorrect or in case of no response, the aircraft is declared hostile. It should be kept in mind that response would not be possible in case of battle damage, loss of encryption keys, wrong encryption keys, or equipment failure. Therefore the major drawback of this system was that it was imperative on the part of the friendly aircraft to prove that he is friendly. In the event of faulty transponder, there are chances of fratricide. 8. Therefore there is a need to have a stand alone system capable of identifying and recognizing aircraft to take timely responsive action and also to prevent fratricide / shooting down of neutrals. CHAPTER III HISTORY OF NCTR Know thy self, know thy enemy. A thousand battles, a thousand victories. SUN TZU 1. Need for a Stand Alone System. As can be seen from the last chapter, the IFF systems had a major drawback, that of requiring participation from the other aircraft. Inability to participate in the challenge response loop by other aircraft due to whatever reason was construed as Hostile by the system. This has resulted in many fratricides in the past. A number of such fratricides due to faulty IFF resulted in the need for a stand alone system. Some more cases of disasters due to faulty IFF are enumerated below:- (a) 1980. An Italian DC-9 passenger plane was shot down with a missile near Sicily. The missile was aimed by mistake because of incorrect IFF and discrimination of the type of plane. 81 passengers died.  [8]   (b) 1988. In the Persian Gulf, an Iranian Airbus was shot down by an SM-2 standard missile. The aircraft was erroneously recognized as an F-14 fighter aircraft. 298 people died.  [9]   (c) 2003. A glaring example of fratricide due to faulty IFF is that of two Royal Air Force Tornados returning after a mission in Iraq , which were shot down by US Patriot missiles on 22 Mar 03, in which both the crew were killed instantly. The investigating board attributed one of the causes as faulty IFF probably broken down due to power failure  [10]  . 2. These kind of mishaps led to the requirement of having a system which could identify aircraft without the active involvement of the unidentified aircraft. The concept of NCTR dates back from the mid seventies. A program started by the USAF code named Musketeer, introduced the idea of NCTR for the first time. In this program, the aircraft radar was used to count the fan blades in the engine  [11]  . This technology was later named as Jet Engine Modulation which would explained in detail in the subsequent chapter. The radar signature was unique to each engine. Since most aircraft had different engines, this technique was exploited for identifying the type of aircraft. 3. Though the concept was introduced in the mid seventies, the computational technology then was not adequate. The radar per se only gathers data and the extraction of useful information has to be done by the radar computers. Hence NCTR technology had to wait till mid eighties for the computer technology to catch up.  [12]  Thereafter the USAF had incorporated NCTR modes in the An/APG 63 radar of F-15 C aircraft. During the Gulf war in 1990- 91, use of this technique was made in conjunction with Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS) for identifying hostile aircraft  [13]  . 4. Post Gulf war some progress was made in Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) systems. These systems did not restrict themselves to aircraft radars and were mostly ground based systems using millimetric wave radars  [14]  . The ranges of these radars were significantly lesser than airborne interception radars. While these radars were completely different in terms of technology and operating ranges, the basic concepts were similar. However the computations involved in aerial target recognition was much higher than ground targets. Though many experiments were conducted on ATR systems, the progress in NCTR was not at the same pace. 5. Post 1985, NCTR was tried and fitted on the USAF F-14, F-16 and F-18 aircraft. In addition, NCTR was also fitted on selected foreign F-15s (Israeli), British Tornados and French Mirage 2000-5s  [15]  . Today, in 2010, the technology has still not fully matured and still cannot be used in isolation for aerial target identification. CHAPTER IV PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND COMPONENTS OF NCTR Principle of Operation 1. Now before proceeding further, it would be prudent to understand how NCTR principles work. NCTR fundamentally relies on the returns from the target aircraft. Hence no active participation (as in IFF) is required from the target aircraft. Non Cooperative Target Recognition like any other identification process would in simple terms consist of first sensing the target. Then the relevant features of the target are extricated and compared with a database. Thus any NCTR system should essentially contain a Sensor, a Feature Extractor and a Classifier. 2. The principle of operation of NCTR is very similar to Optical Character Recognition (OCR) as in computers. The data from the target is collected by a suitable sensor and relevant data extracted. This is compared to the data existing in the library and then classified based on the results of the comparison. And for the success of this technique, a huge library of various aircraft profiles is required as database for comparison. The steps involved in identifying the target aircraft has been depicted in Fig 4.1. The flow chart of target recognition shows that the Recognition Algorithm takes two inputs namely measured target signature and signatures stored in the library and gives target identity as the output. Recognition Algorithms have been briefly explained subsequently. Fig 4.1 : Flowchart of Target Recognition SENSOR 3. Choice of Sensor. Choice of sensor is a very important part of this identification process. Without proper or adequate returns from the target, it would be nearly impossible to accurately classify the aircraft. For NCTR per se, a number of sensors are available Optical, Infra red, laser, acoustic and radar. However the optical, IR and laser sensors are prone to adverse weather conditions like moisture, dust etc. Also the detection ranges of these sensors are significantly lesser as compared to air to air weapon ranges especially in a BVR environment. Radar as a sensor has significant advantages as compared to the other sensors for the following reasons  [16]  :- (a) Aircraft are generally constructed by radar reflective material (even those with carbon composite have metal parts that reflect radar). (b) Radar can be used by day or night and is not affected by haze, fog, snow and rain. (c) Radar ranges are much higher than other sensors due to reduced atmospheric propagation attenuation.. (d) Radar has been one of the most extensively used sensors for aerial surveillance and the technology to generate, receive and process radar signals has been continuously refined for nearly 100 years. Hence radar is the optimum choice of sensor for NCTR on fighter aircraft. Moreover radars are already in place in all the modern generation fighters. Hence there would be no requirement to add a separate sub system on the aircraft. 4. Sensor Requirements. The radar capability required for the NCTR is specific. It is misnomer that any radar can be made NCTR capable. Suitable radar software is not the only thing that required for NCTR process. It is important that the radar design is appropriate to the type of measurement that has to be performed and to provide the type of target signature required. In order to obtain signatures of high integrity, the waveform must be carefully designed and the radar must support the transmission and reception of the signal without distortion  [17]  . The radar must be designed to minimize the effects of multiple reflections and clutter. The radar must also possess sufficient energy so that the returns from the target contain adequate data, required for the recognition process. Therefore it may not be possible to upgrade the existing radars with NCTR capability. Should it be possible, it may entail change of major components, which may not be the most economical solution for preventing fratricides. FEATURE EXTRACTOR 5. Function. The returns from the radar are simply electromagnetic pulses. It is of no use unless, relevant data is extracted from them. This is done by the Feature Extractor. Feature extraction is a process which happens inside the radar computer by means of suitable algorithms. These algorithms look for a specific attribute and isolate them for comparison. The algorithm for feature extraction would depend on the type of NCTR technique being employed for target recognition. Types of NCTR techniques are explained in detail in the next chapter. 6. Constraints. Feature extraction is a highly complex problem due to highly dynamic nature of fighter aircraft  [18]  . The radar returns from the aircraft are highly aspect dependent. More the aspect, more and stronger the radar returns, hence better feature extraction Aspect angle in simple terms is a measure of how much of the target aircraft is visible. When viewed from front / rear minimum area is visible and this is Zero aspect. When viewed from broad side, maximum area of the aircraft is visible. Now the aspect angles in 3D space are both in terms of elevation as well as azimuth. Due to highly aspect dependent nature of the scattered signature, the process of feature extraction becomes even more difficult. Also due to movement of the target, the radar signatures get distorted and this poses problems not only in feature extraction but also classification. These aspects are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. 7. After the radar has transmitted the pulses, detected and processed the return from the target of interest, the target signature is now ready for the recognition process. In order to perform correct target recognition, a lot of information needs to be known about the target. These information are contained in the form of a library in the radar computer. The details of database and database generation are discussed in detail in Chapter 6. CLASSIFIER 8. Classifier. The classifier in an NCTR system compares the extracted features of the target signature with the already existing library of aircraft signatures. The comparison is made with the help of recognition algorithms  [19]  . Recognition algorithms are mathematical techniques or formulae that compare the signatures which have been measured with the mathematical models of aircraft existing in the radar library. The algorithms are designed to analyse and assess how close a match a particular signature is to reference signature contained in the library. With the help of these algorithms, the classifier now assigns the most appropriate and closest identity to the target. Shown in the fig 4.2 is a target signature being compared with the three reference signatures. On close analysis though the target signature does not perfectly match any of the reference signatures, it is closest to Target C. Therefore the classifier would it assign the measured signature as Target C. Fig 4.2 : Target Signature Comparison with Reference Signatures 9. Target signatures have to be measured, modelled and analysed, to enable the attributes used for recognition to be identified. The techniques for reliably extracting these attributes from the target have to be determined. Libraries of target data have to be assembled, ordered, managed and updated as new targets emerge and more target signature data becomes available. The development of reliable recognition algorithms is clearly critical for developing a high-performance target recognition capability. 10. While a computer can easily identify various objects based on the size, shape, colour etcetera, it would still lack the ability to identify objects logically as the human brain does. Till the neural and genetic algorithms are not fully developed, it would be difficult to optimize NCTR for aerial identification.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Community Policing Essay

1. Explain the concept Total Quality Management (TQM) and give examples of each stage of the process (Lesson Two Notes and Internet Research). TQM is a structured approach to organizational management. It entails several steps to identify, assess and implement solutions to problems. The first step is to identify a problem: This could be a patient complaint or an internal process that is not working. The next step would be to assess any needed corrective action. This is done through teamwork and collaboration by brainstorming on how the complaint can be resolved or what part of the process is not working. The questions to ask are; how can we improve? Additional steps are implementing the new process and checking the quality to see if it is actually an improvement. This is done through feedback, surveys and visual observance. 2. How is the nature of crime changing? What types of crimes do you feel we will have to deal with in the future, possibly some that we presently do not deal with? Crime has been changing in numerous ways. With the internet, to name a few, there are crimes of fraud, identity theft and hackers using spam and viruses to steal information and funds. Bank robberies are occurring online and criminals are avoiding the risk of getting caught by robbing them in person. New drugs are manufactured or smuggled into the US constantly and law enforcement is not able to keep up. With the advancements of electronic technology, I foresee many crimes being committed against people who use electronics solely for protecting their home, investments, etc. Hackers will be able to bypass any home security system and gain entry through electronic means. We will no longer be safe in the fortress we thought was solid. Another crime that has the potential to escalate is the creation and selling of coins simila r to bitcoins. Because they are relatively new, people don’t know much about them and take a risk in investing in them. I can visualize fraud and Ponzi type crimes as a result. 3. Explain what is meant by the title of Chapter Two: Engaging in a Changing Society. Be sure to give examples. Actually the title is â€Å"Partnerships in a Changing Society† and discusses the relationship between the community and police as times change. This includes a number of concepts like; communitarianism, in which a community is given the rights and responsibilities to take care of itself by  developing community watches, preventing drug dealers from selling in their neighborhoods; social capital, which is a form of bonding between the community and its individuals, like churches and schools. And last but not least there are volunteers who provide an invaluable service to the police free of charge. These services range from fundraising to helping out in soup kitchens. 4. How does the traditional police organization contrast with the community problem solving strategy of community policing? There are several ways traditional policing contrasts with COPPS. Initially, the government was solely responsible for ensuring laws were enforced while now, both the public and police work together to prevent crimes. In the past, issues important to the police were not important or not taken seriously by other public service departments. In today’s policing, they all assume some responsibility in trying to improve quality of life. Crimes that netted high values were the focus of law enforcement while now, crimes that disrupt a citizens way of like and is of concern has become the focus. These are but just a few ways the two contrasts. 5. How can government most effectively expand its commitment to customer service? Currently, the government has offered services online as well as post updated information to be reviewed by the public. These include; calls for services as some police departments, sheriff’s departments share information about sex offenders in the area as well as arrests and police reports on a daily basis. By providing this type of information to the public, it shows the government as being a willing participant in an effort to protect our communities.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Effect temperature on permeability of membrane

The beet (Beta vulgar's) is a plant in the Chenopodiaceae family. It is best known in its numerous cultivated varieties, the most well known of which is probably the red or urple root vegetable known as the beetroot or garden beet.However, other cultivated varieties include the leaf vegetables chardand spinach beet, as well as the root vegetables sugar beet, which is important in the production of table sugar, and mangelwurzel, which is a fodder crop. Three subspecies are typically recognised. All cultivated varieties fall into the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgar's, while Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, commonly known as the sea beet, is the wild ancestor of hese and is found throughout the Mediterranean, the Atlantic coast of Europe, the Near East, andlndia.A second wild subspecies, Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis, occurs from Greece to Syria. Beetroot cells like any other eukaryotic cells have many types of cell organelle present. Some of these organelles are bounded by a sing le membrane, e. g. lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles; some are bounded by two membranes (an envelope), e. g. nucleus, mitochondrion. Beetroot appears as a dark red/ purple colour and this is caused by the betalain pigment, which is contained ithin the vacuole of beetroot cells.In order for the betalain to leave the cell it needs to pass through 2 different membranes; the membrane bounding the vacuole and the membrane enclosing the cell. Betalain pigments, named after the Red beet (Beta vulgaris). They replace anthocyanins in plants of the order Caryophyllales (Cacti, beets & Co. , bougainvillaea, phytolacca, large-flowered purslane etc and also in some fungi such as fly agaric). Two categories of betalains exist and each have distinct color and chemical properties.Betacyanins convey a blue-violent to reddish-purple coloring, are a source of antioxidants and are susceptible to color changes depending antioxidants and are relatively stable. Betalains are found exclusively within on e plant order, which includes beets, prickly pear cactus, chard and amaranth. Betanin is a specific betacyanin and the most prominent pigment in the red beet root where it contributes between 75% – 90% of the total visible color. Plasma membrane Plasma membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells rom the outside environment.The cell membrane is selectively-permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. It consists of the phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins, which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling. The plasma membrane also serves as the attachment surface for the extracellular glycocalyx and cell wall and intracellular cytoskeleton. Plasma membrane proteins function in several different ways.